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science and literature; and Sir Robert Barker, an early visitor, has described an observatory there, said to have been erected by the Emperor Akhbar,* in which were astronomical instruments of large dimensions, constructed with great skill and ingenuity. Mr. Davis, who was judge and magistrate of the district about the period of this narrative, and who will be found to perform a conspicuous part towards the conclusion of it, profited by his residence there to investigate the astronomical science of the Brahmins. He was the first Englishman who applied a knowledge of their sacred language to an examination of their books. The results of his researches were discussed by Mr. Cavendish, in the Philosophical Transactions, and are known to all who feel interested in the early history of the science to which they relate.f A Hindoo Sanscrit College, established in the year 1791, and supported by the British government, has continued to prosper to the present day.

* The observatory was really built by Jysingh, Rajah of Jypore, about the year 1700. See Asiatic Researches, vol. v. p. 177.

+ Cited by Robertson in his History of India, Note LXVIII.

As the crowded streets of an Asiatic town possess few attractions for Europeans, the residences of the English at Benares are chiefly erected at Secrole, a short distance from the city. In style they somewhat resemble the villas and country seats of our English gentry, with such modifications as may be demanded by the climate. Insulated within their own grounds, the four sides are open to the winds, while a plentiful supply of Venetian blinds serves to exclude the excess of the sun's rays. The height does not generally exceed one story above the ground floor; but the flat roofs afford space for extensive terraces with parapets, which in some cases are approached by narrow winding stairs, surmounted by a trapdoor. This mode of construction is particularised here, because it will be found to exercise a considerable influence on succeeding events.

Benares was the scene of one of the most remarkable adventures of Warren Hastings-one in which he rashly exposed himself to great personal peril, but extricated himself with equal resolution and skill. The transaction, which, from its dubious character, formed one of the

principal charges against the British proconsul on his return home, was briefly this.

The governor-general had instituted a claim against the Rajah Cheyte Singh of some hundred thousands of pounds sterling, and he followed up the excuses or evasions of the rajah by force. He visited Benares, and there, notwithstanding the personal submissions and protestations of the unfortunate Cheyte Singh, had him arrested by two companies of troops in his own capital. This extreme measure, accompanied as Hastings was by a mere handful of troops, soon led to an insurrection among the subjects of the outraged prince. The building,' relates Mr.

. • Macaulay, ' in which he had taken up his residence was on every side blockaded by the insurgents. But his fortitude remained unshaken. The rajah from the other side of the river sent apologies and liberal offers. They were not even answered. Some subtle and enterprising men were found, who undertook to pass through the throng of enemies, and to communicate the intelligence of the late events to the English cantonments. It is the fashion of the natives of India to wear large ear-rings of gold. When they travel, the rings are laid aside, lest the

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precious metal should tempt some gang of robbers; and, in place of the ring, 'a quill or a roll of paper is inserted in the orifice to prevent it from closing. Hastings placed in the ears of his messenger letters rolled up in the smallest compass.

Things, however, were not yet at the worst. An English officer of more spirit than judgment, eager to distinguish himself, made a premature attack on the insurgents beyond the river. His troops were entangled in narrow streets, and assailed by a furious population. He fell, with many of his men, and the survivors were forced to retire. The hopes of Cheyte Singh began to rise. Instead of imploring mercy in the humble style of a vassal, he began to talk the language of a conqueror, and threatened, it was said, to sweep the white usurpers out of the land. But the English troops were now assembling fast. The officers and even the private men regarded the governor-general with enthusiastic attachment, and flew to his aid with an alacrity which, as he boasted, had never been shown on any other occasion. Major Popham, a brave and skilful soldier, who had highly distinguished himself

in the Mahratta war, and in whom the governorgeneral reposed the greatest confidence, took the command. The tumultuary army of the rajah was put to rout. His fortresses were stormed. In a few hours about thirty thou

. sand men left his standard and returned to their ordinary avocations. The unhappy prince fled from his country for ever. His fair domain was added to the British dominions. One of his relatives indeed was appointed rajah ; but the Rajah of Benares was henceforth to be, like the Nabob of Bengal, a mere pensioner.'

Such was his condition at the period of this narrative, to which we return. The decision, as to deposing Vizier Ali, being once made, there was no difficulty in fixing on the rightful successor. Saadut Ali, as before stated, was the eldest surviving son of Soojah ul Dowlah, the late nawaub's father. When the treaty proposed by the governor-general was communicated to that prince, “it was not the time,' as Mill observes, “to dispute about terms. His consent being obtained, he was conveyed secretly to Cawnpore,* and once safely arrived


* There was something interesting in the mode of Saadut Ali's journey to Cawnpore. Mr. Cherry ordered relays to be


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