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with the overweighted specimens in the Dhammasangaṇi— sixteen factors as compared with about fifty-in that briefer catalogue two quite distinct lists are lumped together: five terms connected by "and . . . and . . and eleven terms without and ". In these lists contact could only find its proper place as the very first of the whole sixteen terms.1 Such crude treatment possibly antedates by a little the editing of our present work. And further three in the list of eleven factors are among those so-called "or-whatever-others" (ye-va-panakā), which had somehow gone under when our book was edited, and are restored by the Commentarial tradition, when re-cast by Buddhaghosa, namely "desire, resolve, attention".
Buddhaghosa either did not know the Anupada-Sutta,1 or forgot to quote it. Yet to quote it is precisely what he would have done just here, when he was writing the Atthasālinī on the Dhammasangani. And his canonical erudition was remarkable. How did he come to overlook the Sutta? 1
This edition begins, as the first edition should have begun, with the real beginning of the Abhidhamma-Piṭaka, i.e. with the Mātikā or Table of Contents. It seems likely that this Table or Schema formed, in the earlier ages of the Order, the germ out of which the Third Piṭaka was evolved, and that the Vinaya allusions to "Vinaya, Dhamma, Mātikā ", and "Mātikadharo" (Vin. Texts, i, 273; ii, 285, 345) refer to it. Not only the Dhammasangani but the whole of the Paṭṭhāna is an elaboration of it, and the Atthasalini discusses it at considerable length.
Next, a few words may here be said on certain renderings in this new edition.
Ten years after the first edition appeared Mr. S. Z. Aung
1 In my table of quotations from the canon, in my edition of the Visuddhi-Magga, I give a reference to this Sutta, but should more properly have omitted it. It is only to Sariputta as mahāpañño, and that can be cited from other Suttas (I cite two).
EDWARD T. STURDY,
WHOSE GENEROUS ASSISTANCE
THE EDITION OF THE COMMENTARY
HAS BEEN RENDERED ACCESSIBLE TO SCHOLARS,
A TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT TO READERS GENERALLY,
THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED
WITH THE CORDIAL REGARD OF HIS FRIEND,
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
To Section II of the following introductory essay there has been waiting to be added, nearly as many years as that has been written, a point of literary history not without interest. It is the linking up of the Dhammasangani, in one respect, with the Suttas-in respect namely, of the method of psychological introspection consistently pursued throughout Book I.
When my work was nearing completion, the Pali Text Society published that part of Mr. (now Lord) Chalmers's edition of the second half of the Majjhima-Nikāya (left unfinished by Trenckner), which contains Sutta No. 111: the Anupada-Sutta (vol. iii, p. 25 f.). And when, my labours on the Dhammasangani being over, I was making an analysis of this new material, I came, in this Sutta, upon a reference to mental introspection methodically carried out, and ascribed as a notable feat, because of his sometime persistence in it, to the diligent, wise, and modest apostle called Sariputta. He is stated to have practised "for fortnight" such introspection, insight, or intuition (vipassanā), that the contents (content, as our philosophers prefer) of a state of mind" at any given moment in meditation is elicited in the way called anupada. The passage may be translated thus:
Sariputta, brethren, for a fortnight, intuited the intuition of successive states of mind. His intuiting was this: When he, aloof from sense-desires, aloof from evil states, attained to an abode in First Jhana, which is with applied and sustained thought, is born of solitude, is full of zest and ease, then those states which are in First Jhana, to wit, applied thought and sustained thought and zest and ease and selfcollectedness; contact, feeling, perception, volition, thought, desire, resolve, energy, mindfulness, indifference, attention, were by him successively determined; he understood them as they arose, as they were present, as they vanished. And he knew thus: Verily thus for me states which were not