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The Group of the Bonds (y o ga-gocchakam)
The Group on Perversion (p a rā māsa-goccha kam) 293
The Great Intermediate Set of Pairs (mah antara
The Group of the Graspings (u pādāna-goccha kam) 299
The Group on the Vices (kiles a-goccha kam)
The Supplementary Set of Pairs (piṭṭhidu k a m)
The Suttanta Pairs of Terms (suttantika-dukam) 314
On the Supplementary Digest appended to the DhammaSangani, and entitled, in the Commentary, the Atthakathakaṇḍam or Atthuddhāro. 336
1. BUDDHIST CANONICAL BOOKS.
K.-Siamese (Kambodian) edition of the text.
2. OTHER BOOKS.
JPTS. Journal of the Pali Text Society.
Pss.B.-Psalms of the Brethren, trs. Theragāthā.
SBE.-Sacred Books of the East.
[By "printed text", or simply "text", is always meant, unless otherwise stated, the edition of the Dhamma-Sangaņi, published in 1885 by the Pali Text Society.]
The Manual and the History of Psychology.
IF the sands of Egypt or the ruins of Greece itself were to give up, among their buried things that are now and again being restored to us, a copy of some manual with which the young Socrates was put through the mill of current academic doctrine, the discovery would be hailed, especially by scholars of historical insight, as a contribution of peculiar interest. The contents would no doubt yield no new matter of philosophic tradition. But they would certainly teach something respecting such points as pre-Aristotelian logical methods, and the procedure followed in one or more schools for rendering students conversant with the concepts in psychology, ethics and metaphysic accepted or debated by the culture of the age.
Readers whose sympathies are not confined to the shores of the Mediterranean and Egean seas will feel a stir of interest, similar in kind if fainter in degree, on becoming more closely acquainted with the Buddhist textbook entitled Dhamma-Sangani. The edition of the Pali text, prepared for the Pali Text Society by Professor Dr. Ed. Müller, and published in 1885, has so far failed to elicit any critical discussion among Pali scholars. A cursory inspection may have revealed little but what seemed dry, prolix and sterile, Such was, at least, the verdict of a younger worker, now, alas! no more among us. Closer study of the work will, I believe, prove less ungrateful, more especially if the conception of it as a student's manual be kept well in view. The method of the book is explicative, deductive; its object
1 H. C. Warren, Buddhism in Translations, xviii. Cf. Kern, Indian Buddhism, p. 3.
was, not to add to the Dhamma, but to unfold the orthodox import of terms in use among the body of the faithful, and, by organizing and systematizing the aggregate of doctrinal concepts, to render the learner's intellect both clear and efficient.
Even a superficial inspection of the Manual should yield great promise to anyone interested in the history of psychology. When in the year 1893 my attention was first drawn to it, and the desirability of a translation pointed out by Professor Rhys Davids, I was at once attracted by the amount of psychological material embedded in its pages. Buddhist philosophy is ethical first and last. This is beyond dispute. But among ethical systems there is a world of difference in the degree of importance attached to the psychological prolegomena of ethics. In ethical problems we are a basis of psychology of conation or will,1 with its co-efficients of feeling and intelligence. And in the history of human ideas, in so far as it clusters about those problems, we find this dependence is sometimes made prominent, sometimes slurred over. Treated superficially, if suggestively and picturesquely, in Plato, the nature and functions of that faculty in man, whereby he is constituted an ethical and political "animal", are by Aristotle analyzed at length. But the Buddhists were, in a way, more advanced in the psychology of their ethics than Aristotle-in a way, that is, which would now be called scientific. Rejecting the assumption of a psyche and of its higher manifestations or noûs, they were content to resolve the consciousness of the Ethical Man, as they found it, into a complex continuum of subjective phenomena. They analyzed this continuum, as
1 Cf. G. C. Robertson, Elements of General Philosophy, pp. 191, 197; Philosophical Remains, p. 3; A. Bain, Moral Science-The Psychological Data of Ethics. "Every ethical system involves a psychology of conduct, and depends for its development upon its idea of what conduct actually is (C. Douglas, The Philosophy of J. S. Mill, p. 251).