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rashly cast egoistic morality at it to much effect. Nor has it much to fear from charges of stultification, quietism, pessimism, and the like. We are misled to a certain extent by the very thoroughness of its methods of getting at the moral life by way of psychical training. We see, as in our Manual and other canonical records, elaborate systems for analyzing and cultivating the intellectual faculties, the will, and feeling, and we take these as substitutes for overt moral activity, as ends when they are but means. And if the DhammaSangani seems to some calculated to foster introspective thought to a morbid extent, it must not be forgotten that it is not Buddhist philosophy alone which teaches that, for all the natural tendency to spend and be spent in efforts to cope, by thought and achievement, with the world without, "it is in this little fathom-long mortal frame with its thinkings and its notions that the world "1 itself and the whole problem of its misery and of the victory over it lies hid.

If I have succeeded to any extent in connecting the contents of this Manual with the rest of the Buddhist Piṭakas, it is because I had at my disposal the mass of material accumulated in my husband's MS. Pali dictionary. Besides this, the selection of material for Sections II and III of my Introduction in his work. Besides this, I owe him a debt of gratitude indefinitely great for advice and criticism generally.

1 See second quotation above, p. vii.

Note to p. liii.-Professor Sthcherbatzky has given from later Buddhist sources this solution of the Rupaloka crux: In an older dual division of worlds into Rūpa (corporeal mental life) and Arupa (incorporeal mental life), the Kamaloka (life where sense-desires are operative) was a sub-division of Rūpaloka. This subdivision came to be raised to a main division. Hence the three divisions. This seems to me a plausible hypothesis. Ancient eschatology was vague and careless enough (we are no better even now) to let this disorderly division stand.



1-983. 1.

984-6. 2.



States that are good, bad, indeterminate. States that are associated with pleasant feeling, painful feeling, neutral feeling. 987-9. 3. States that are results; that have resultant quality; that are neither.

990-2. 4. States that are grasped at and favourable to grasping; that are not grasped at but are

favourable to grasping; that are neither.

993-4. 5. States that are vitiated and vicious; that are not vitiated but are vicious; that are neither.

995-8. 6. States that have applied and sustained sustained thinking only;


999-1001. 7. States that are accompanied by zest; by happiness; by indifference.

1002-4. 8. States that are to be put away by vision; by culture; by neither.

1005-12. 9. States the moral roots of which are to be put away by vision; by culture; by neither.

building up; going to

1013-15. 10. States going to

going to neither.

pulling down;

1016-18. 11. States of one in training; of the adept; of

one who is neither.

1019-21. 12.

States that are limited, sublime, infinite.

1022-4. 13.

States that have a limited object; a sublime object; neither.

1025-7. 14. States that are base; of medium worth;



1028-30. 15. States that are of a wrongfulness fixed as to consequences; that are of a righteousness

fixed as to consequences; that do not entail fixed consequences.

1031-4. 16. States that have the Path as object; whose moral root is the Path; whose dominant influence is the Path.

1035-7. 17. States that have arisen; that have not arisen; that are bound to arise.

1038-40. 18.

1041-3. 19.

States that are past; present; future. States that have the past as their object; the present...; the future as their object.

1044-6. 20. States that belong to one's self; are external to one's self; are belonging or external to

one's self.

1047-9. 21. States that have for an object one's self; an object external to one's self; an object that is both.

1050-2. 22. States that are visible and reacting; invisible and reacting; neither.


1073, 1074.

Here end the triplets.

States that are moral roots; not moral roots.

States concomitant with a moral root; not

so concomitant.

1075, 1076. States associated with a moral root; dis

sociated from a moral root.

1077, 1078. States that are both moral roots and concomitant with a moral root; states of

mind that are the latter but not the former.

1079, 1080. States that are both moral roots and associated with moral roots; states of

mind that are the latter but not the former.


1081, 1082. States that are not moral roots, but are either concomitant with moral roots or not.

This is the moral root group.

1083, 1084. States that are causally related ; not causally related.

1085, 1086.

1087, 1088.

1089, 1090. 1091, 1092.

1093, 1094. 1095.


1103, 1104. 1105, 1106.

States that are conditioned; unconditioned.
States that are visible; invisible.

States that are reactions; not reactions.
States that have material form; that are

States that are mundane; supramundane. States that may be cognized in a given way ; that may not be cognized in that given way.

This is the short intermediate set of pairs.

States that are asavas; are not āsavas.
States that have āsavas, have not āsavas.
States that are associated with asavas; dis-
sociated from āsavas.

1107, 1108. States that both are and have asavas; that have asavas but are not āsavas.

1109, 1110. States that are both asavas and associated with asayas; that are associated with

āsavas but are not āsavas.

1111, 1112. States that are dissociated from āsa vas, but may have or may not have asavas. This is the Asava group.


1125, 1126.

States that are fetters; are not fetters.

States that are favourable to fetters; are

not so.

1127, 1128. States that are associated with fetters; are

dissociated from fetters.

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