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Thought engaged upon the Higher Ideal (lo k uttaram cittam).
I. THE FIRST PATH (patha mo maggo). 1 The Twenty Great Methods (visati mahāna yā). 1. Rapt Meditation (j hā na m).
(i) The Four Modes of Progress in Schemata (suddhika-paṭipadā).]
 Which are the states that are good?
When he cultivates the Jhana of the Higher Ideal (the rapt meditation) whereby there is a going forth and onward, making for the undoing of rebirth 2-and when, that he
1 That is to say, the first stage of the way or course of life leading to Arahantship or Nirvana. In the answers, bhūmi (Stage) is substituted for Path. And the "First Bhumi " is declared in the Cy. (pp. 214, 215) to be equivalent to the first-fruits. (or fruition) of recluseship (cf. D. i, second sutta); in other words, to the fruit of sotā patti, or of conversion", as it has been termed.
2 The special kind of Jhāna which he who has turned his back on the three lower ideals of life in the worlds of sense, form, or the formless, and has set his face steadfastly toward Arahantship, must" practise, bring forth and develop ", is described by Buddhaghosa as being ekacittakkhanikam appanājhanam ecstatic meditation on a concept induced by the momentary flash of a thought (cf. KV., pp. 458, 620)—and by the text itself as niyya nikam a paca yagāmim. The former of these two last terms is thus commented upon : "It is a going forth (down from) the world, from the cycle of rebirth. Or, there is a going forth by means of it. The man who is filled with it, comprehending Ill, goes forth, putting away the uprising (of Ill), goes forth, realizing the cessation (of Ill) goes forth, cultivating the path (leading to that cessation) goes forth ". And the latter term: This is not like that heaping together and multiplying of rebirth effected by the good which belongs to the three worlds of being. This is even as if one man having heaped up a stockade eighteen cubits high, another should afterwards take a great hammer and set to work to pull down
may attain to the First Stage, he has put away views and opinions,1 and so, aloof from sensuous desires, aloof from evil ideas, enters into and abides in the First Jhana, wherein is thinking applied and sustained, which is born of solitude, is full of zest and ease, progress thereto being difficult and intuition sluggish-then there is contact, feeling, perception, volition, thought, application of mind, sustained application, zest, ease, self-collectedness, the faculties of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, insight, mind, happiness, life, and the faculty of believing "I shall come to know the unknown", right views, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right endeavour, right mindfulness, right concentration; the powers of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, insight, conscientiousness, the fear of blame; disinterestedness, absence of hate, dullness, covetousness and malice, right views, conscientiousness, fear of blame, serenity, lightness, plasticity, facility, fitness and directness in both sense and thought, mindfulness, self-awareness, quiet, intuition, grasp and balance.
Now these or whatever other incorporeal, causally induced
and demolish his work. For so it, too, sets about pulling down and demolishing that potency for rebirth heaped up by the threeworld-good, by bringing about a deficiency in the causes thereof.
1 Diṭṭhigatani, lit. view-gone [things]. All traditions. or speculations adhered to either without evidence or on insufficient evidence, such as are implied in the states called theory of individuality, perplexity, and perversion in rule and ritual" (Asl. 214; infra §§ 1002-5).
2 The italics show those constituents of consciousness wherein this Jhana differs from that mentioned in § 160, the constituents of which are identical with those of the First Type of Good Thought, § 1.
3 These three factors of the "Eightfold Path", which were not explicitly included in the Eight Types of Good Thoughts, were, according to the Cy., included implicitly in the "orwhatever-states". See above, p. 5, n. 1. Here the Cy. only remarks that, whereas these three are now included in the Pali" because the Eightfold Path has Nirvana for its goal, "pity" and "sympathy" are not included because they have living beings for their object, and not Nirvana.
states there are on that occasion-these are states that are
and "thought" are described as in §§ 2-6.
 What on that occasion is application of mind? The discrimination, the application, which on that occasion is the disposing, the fixing, the focussing, the superposing of the mind, the best intention, "Path-component," "contained in the Path"-this is the application that there then is.
 "Sustained thought" is described as in § 8.
 What on that occasion is zest?
The zest which on that occasion is joy, rejoicing at, rejoicing over, mirth, merriment, felicity, exultation, elation of mind, the zest which is a factor of enlightenment 2-this is the zest that there then is.
 "Ease" is described as in § 10.
 What on that occasion is self-collectedness?
The stability, solidity, absorbed steadfastness of thought which on that occasion is the absence of distraction, balance, unperturbed mental procedure, quiet, the faculty and the power of concentration, the best concentration, the concentration which is a factor of enlightenment, a “Path
1 The Path being the "Eightfold Path ", "application of mind (vitakko) is reckoned as included in it, in virtue of its being approximately equivalent to "intention" (s a n kappo).
2 Piti-sam bojjhango. The seven Sambojjhangas are enumerated in A. iv, 23; S. v, 110, 111. In Mil. 340 they are termed "the jewel of the seven-fold wisdom of the Arahats". On the state called sa m bodhi, see Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha, i, pp. 190-2. It is in the Cy. (217) described as the harmony of its seven constituent states, and as forming the opposite to the detrimental compound consisting of the accumulations of adhesion (1īna m ) and excitement, indulgence in the pleasures and satiety of sensuality, and addiction to the speculations of Nihilism and Eternalism (below, § 1003). The verb bujjhati is thus paraphrased: He arises from the slumber of vice, or discerns the four Noble Truths, or realizes Nirvana.
application that there then is.
 "Faith" is described as in § 12.
 What on that occasion is the faculty of energy?
The mental inception of energy which there is on that occasion, the striving and the onward effort, the exertion and endeavour, the zeal and ardour, the vigour and fortitude, the state of unfaltering effort, the state of sustained desire, the state of unflinching endurance, the solid grip of the burden, energy, energy as faculty and as power, the best energy, the energy which is a factor of enlightenment, a Path-component, contained in the Path-this is the energy that there then is.
 What on that occasion is the faculty of mindfulness? The mindfulness which on that occasion is recollecting, calling back to mind the mindfulness 1 which is remembering, bearing in mind, the opposite of superficiality and of obliviousness; mindfulness, mindfulness as faculty and as power, the best mindfulness, the mindfulness which is a factor of enlightenment, a Path-component, contained in the Paththis is the mindfulness that there then is.
 Concentration is described in the same terms as "self-collectedness", § 287.
 What on that occasion is the faculty of insight? The insight which there is on that occasion is understanding, search, research, searching the Truth, discernment, discrimination, differentiation, erudition, proficiency, subtlety, criticism, reflection, analysis, breadth, sagacity, leading, insight, intelligence, incitement, insight as faculty and as power, as a sword, as a height, as light, as glory, as splendour, as a precious stone; the absence of dullness, searching the Truth, the best views, that searching the Truth which is a
1 Sati, repeated as in § 14, has dropped out of the printed text. K. repeats it.
factor in the Great Awakening,1 a Path-component, contained in the Path-this is the insight that there then is.
[293-5] The faculties of "mind", gladness", and "life" are described as in §§ 17-19.
 What on that occasion is the faculty of believing, "I shall come to know the unknown (ana ññā taññas sāmītindriyam)? 2
The insight that makes for the realization of those Truths 3 that are unrealized, uncomprehended, anattained to, undiscerned, unknown-the insight that is understanding, search, research, searching the Truth, etc.
[Continue as in § 292.]
 What on that occasion are best views?
Answer as for "insight", § 292.
 "Best intention
conception ", § 283.
is described in the same terms as
 What on that occasion is best speech (sammā vācā)?
To renounce on that occasion, abstain, refrain, and feel
1 Under the name of Dhammavicayo, searching the truth, or doctrine, or religion.
2 According to Buddhaghosa (216), the inspiring sense of assurance that dawns upon the earnest, uncompromising student that he will come to know the doctrine of the great truths—that Ambrosial Way unknown in the cycle of worldly pursuits and consequences where the goal is not ambrosial-is to him as the upspringing of a new faculty or moral principle.
3 Tesam sacchikiriyāya pañ ñ ã, etc., which may more literally be rendered the insight (or understanding, etc.) of, for, or from, the realization of, etc. "Bringing right opposite the eyes" is the paraphrase (Asl. 218). The student while in the First Path" learns the full import of those concise formulæ known as the Four Noble Truths, which the Buddha set forth in his first authoritative utterance. Previously he will have had mere second-hand knowledge of them; and as one coming to a dwelling out of his usual beat, and receiving fresh garland and raiment and food, realizes that he is encountering new experiences, so are these truths, while not known by him, spoken of as "unknown" (Asl. 218).