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[Continue as in the Third Type of Thought, substituting "indifference" for "zest" and "ease", the "faculty of disinterestedness" for that of "gladness", and "fourfold" for "fivefold Jhāna ".1]

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[Summary.]

[157a] Now, on that occasion

the skandhas are four,

etc., etc.

[Continue as in the Third Type of Thought, substituting "fourfold " for "fivefold Jhana."]

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[158] What on that occasion is the skandha of synergies? The content of this skandha is the same as in the Third Type of Thought (see § 148), with the further omission of “zest ".

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[Continue as in the First Type of Thought.]

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[Here ends] the Seventh Type of Thought.

VIII.

[159] Which are the states that are good?

When a good thought concerning the sensuous universe has arisen, accompanied by indifference, disconnected with knowledge, by instigation, and having, as its object, a sight, a sound, a smell, a taste, a touch, a [mental] state, or what not, then there is contact, etc.

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[Continue as in the Seventh Type of Thought.]

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[Here ends] the Eighth Type of Thought.

[End of Chapter I on] the Eight Main Types of Thought concerning the Sensuous Universe.

(Here ends the Second Portion for Recitation.)

1 Nanindriya m in the text should be manindriyam.

CHAPTER II.

[Good in relation to the Universe of Form (rūpāvacara-kusalam).

Methods for inducing Jhana.

I.

The Eight Artifices (att ha kasiņam).

1. The Earth Artifice patha vikasiņam).

(a) The Fourfold System of Jhāna catukkan a y o).]

[160] Which are the states that are good?

When, that he may attain to the heavens of Form,1 he 2 cultivates the way [thereto], aloof from sensuous desires, aloof from evil ideas,3 and so, by earth-gazing, enters into

1 See Introduction, pt. vi; also p. x.

2 The subject of these states of consciousness.

3 Vivicc' eva kamehi, vivicca akusalehi dhammehi. Lit., "having separated one's self, having become without, having departed from" (Asl. 164). That is to say--again according to the Cy. (ibid.)-from the objects of sensual desires, and from corrupt desires themselves, respectively (vatthukamā, kilesakāmā. Childers' Dictionary, s.v. kā mo). The former phrase (vivicc' eva kā mehi) includes the whole psychological realm of sense-presentation (kayo, or the three skandhas of feeling, perception, and synergies); the latter, d h a m me hi, referring to the realm of ideation (citta m) only.

The Cy. repudiates the idea that the emphatic enclitic e v a, occurring only in the former of the two phrases, renders the latter less important, and quotes, in support, the opening words of the Cula-sihanada Discourse (M. i, 63).

4 Pathavika sinam. The first of the Karmasṭhāna methods, or quasi-hypnotic devices for attaining to temporary rapt oblivion of the outer world. The percept of the circle of mould induces the vivid image (nimittam), and therefore Jhana supervenes.

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and abides in 1 the First Jhana (the first rapt meditation), wherein is thinking applied and sustained,2 which is born of solitude, and full of zest 4 and ease-then the contact, the feeling. . . the grasp, the balance, which arise in him, or whatever other 5 incorporeal, causally induced states that there are on that occasion-these are states that are good.

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Continue as in the First Type of Thought relating to the sensuous universe, including the Summary and "Emptiness divisions.

1 i.e. sustains the mood indefinitely. The Cy. quotes the Vibhanga as paraphrasing the term by the same expressions, going on," etc., as are used to describe above (§ 19) the "faculty of life ".

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2 Savitakkam savicaram. Leaving the negative essential conditions of Jhāna, we pass to the positive features (Asl. 166). The meditation progresses by means of these two in particular, as a tree does by its flowers and fruit. According to the Vibhanga, they reveal the determined resolves of the individual student (p ugg a ladhiṭṭhānā). (Ibid.)

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3 According to the Cy., the solitude is rather moral than physical, and means born in the seclusion which the student creates by thrusting from his heart the five hindrances (ibid.; infra, § 1152). According as it is said in the Peṭaka (Peṭakopadesa), concentration opposes sensual desire; zest opposes malice; the onset of intellect opposes stolidity and torpor; ease opposes excitement and worry; sustained thought opposes perplexity or doubt (Asl. 165). See D. i, 73, where the hindrances are explicitly mentioned in connexion with Jhāna ; also the notes in Rhys Davids's Dialogues of the Buddha, i, p. 84. 4 i.e. zest of the fourth species, pharana-pīti (Asl. 166), § 9; also compare the passage just referred to, D. i, 73. See above, so imam eva kāyam... abhisandeti... parippharati.

5 These are said to be the four first-desire, etc.-of the nine named above, p. 5, n. 1 (Asl. 168).

So the Cy. (ibid.). In the text, therefore, the reader should have been referred, not to (147), but to (1). K. indicates the elision simply by a... pe... at the point corresponding to the comma before " or whatever . in my translation, followed by "ime dhammā kusalā”.

I am inclined, however, to think that the detailed catechism as to the nature of the various dhammas, such as

[161] Which are the states that are good?

When, that he may attain to the heavens of Form, he cultivates the way [thereto], suppressing the working of applied and sustained thinking, and so, by earth-gazing, enters into and abides in the Second Jhana (the second rapt meditation), which is self-evolved,1 born of concentration, full of zest and ease, in that, set free from the working of applied and sustained thinking, the mind grows calm and sure, dwelling on high 3-then the contact, the feeling, the

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occurs at §§ 2-57, is not to be understood as included in the passage elided, either here or in the remaining Jhanas. K. does not repeat the pe... cited above at the corresponding point in the three remaining Jhanas, where the Summary is not elided, but given. Nor does it give the . . . pe... which stands in the text, in §§ 163, 165, before T a s mim kho pana sama y e. Similarly it omits the pe... given in the text at the corresponding points in the formula for the "fivefold Jhana", § 168 et seq.

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1 Ajjhattam, i.e. according to the Cy. (169), attano jātam, attasantane nibbattam; according to the Vibhanga, paccattam. It is not quite clear to me what is the special force of the term in just this Jhāna, unless it be that the earth-gazing" is not now continued-the individual becoming more rapt from external determinants of consciousness, more susceptible to purely subjective conditions.

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2 Sampasada na m, tranquillizing, paraphrased in the Cy. (ibid.) by sad dhā, assurance or faith (above, § 12). It is a term for Jhana itself, blent as it is with the whole contemplative discipline, "just as cloth steeped in purple is 'purple'"-to adapt the commentator's simile to our idiom. The following word ceta so, "of the mind," may be taken either with this term, or with that next after it, ekodibhav a m (ibid.).

3 In the text read ekodibhavam. Buddhaghosa's comments on this expression contain the original of the Thera Subhuti's quotation given in Childers. The substance of them is that the ceto (intellect, mind, heart), no longer overwhelmed or encumbered by vitak ko and vicaro, rises up slowly pre-eminent (e koseṭṭho or as a hay o) in its meditative concentration, or samadhi, this term being synonymous with ekodibhāvam (samadhiss' eta m adhiva canam). The discursive intellection of the First Jhana, troubling the ce to, as waves rendering water turgid,

perception, the volition, the thought, the joy, the ease, the self-collectedness, the faculties of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, insight, mind, happiness, and life, the right views, right endeavour, . . .2 the grasp, the balance that arises these, or whatever other incorporeal, causally induced states that there are on that occasion--these are states that are good.

[Summary.]

[161a] Now, on that occasion

the skandhas are four,

the spheres are two,

the elements are two,
the nutriments are three,
the faculties are eight,
the Jhana is threefold,3
the Path is fourfold,4

the powers are seven,
the causes are three,

contact counts as a single factor,
etc., etc.

[Continue as in § 58 et seq.]

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has in the Second Jhana sunk to rest. And this uplifting is said (the commentator emphasizes) of ce to, and not of an individual entity, nor of a living soul (na sattassa na jivassa). See Morris's note, JPTS., 1885, p. 32.

1 Sammāsan kappo is here, its usual order of place, omitted. It involves vit akko; see § 7.

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2 The reference in the text to § 157 cannot be right. The subject has not yet banished pleasurable emotion, and attained to the calm of indifference; nor is his state of mind disconnected with knowledge". The type of thought, as to its remaining components, is still the first, i.e. that of § 1.

3 Cf. § 83.

suppressed.

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Applied" and "sustained thought" are now

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4 Cf. § 89. Right intention," as involving applied thought", is now suppressed. The mind is no longer occupied with overt activities concerned with this life. See p. 46, n. 3.

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