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Lodi dynasty, The (1450-1526 A.D.), 230.
Lucknow, Siege and relief of, 321.
Lytton, Lord, Viceroy of India (1876-
1880): Proclamation of the Queen as
Empress of India: great famine of
1877-78 second Afghán war, 326,

Macnaghten, Sir William, Assassination

of, at Kábul (1839), 309.

Madhu Ráo, fourth Marhattá Peshwá
(1761-72): the five Marhattá houses,

Madhu Ráo Náráyan, sixth Marhattá
Peshwá (1774-95): first Marhattá war,
and treaty of Salbái, 264.

Madras, founded in 1639, 277, 281;
capture of, by the French: seige of,
by the English: restoration to the
British, 282.

Madrasa, Muhammadan college of Cal-
cutta, 363.

Mahábhárata, the epic poem of the

heroic age in Northern India: the
struggle between the Kauravas and
Pandavas, 125-129.

Mahmud of Ghazní (1001-1030 A.D.),
his seventeen invasions of India, 217,
218; patriotic resistance of the Hindus,
218; sack of Somnáth, 218, 219; con-
quest of the Punjab, 219.

Mahmud Tughlak, last king of the Tughlak
dynasty (1389-1412 A.D.): invasion of
Timúr (Tamerlane), 230.

Málik Káfur, slave general of Alá-ud-din
(1303-15), his conquest of Southern
India, 226.

Mán Sinh, Akbar's Hindu general and
governor of Bengal, 237.

Manu, the founder of Sanskrit law, 121,

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Means of communication, 435-437. For
details, see Table of Contents.
Medicine, Bráhmanical system of, 115-

117; modern medical schools, 118.
Meerut, Outbreak of the Mutiny at, 319.
Megasthenes, Seleukos' ambassador to
the court of Chandra Gupta, 157, 161;
his description of India and of Indian
society (300 B.C.), 161-163.
Meghna, the estuary of the Brahmaputra
river, 35.

Metcalfe, Lord, Governor-General of
India (1835-36), 307, 208.

Meteorology, 505-515. For details, see
Table of Contents.

Mhairs, aboriginal tribe in Rájputána,

Miání, Defeat of the Sind Mirs at, by Sir
C. Napier (1843), 311.

Millets, Statistics of cultivation of, and
the chief varieties, 385.

Minerals and mines, 486-495.



details, see Table of Contents.
Mines and minerals, 486-495.
details, see Table of Contents.
Minto, Earl of, Governor-General of
India (1807-13): expeditions to Java
and Mauritius: embassies to the
Punjab, Afghánistán, and Persia,

Mír Jumla's unsuccessful expedition to
Assam in the reign of Aurangzeb,

Model farms, the small success hitherto
attained, 407, 408.

Moira, Earl of. See Hastings, Marquis


Monson, Colonel, his retreat before
Holkar, 300.

Mornington, Lord. Sce Wellesley, Mar-
quis of
Múdki, Battle of, 312.

Mughal Empire, The, 234-257. For
details, see Table of Contents.
Muhammad of Ghor, the first king of the
Ghor dynasty in India (1186-1206):
his conquests in Northern India and
overthrow of the Rájput clans, 220,
222; subjugation of Bengal and defeat
of its last independent king (1203),


Muhammad Tughlak, second king of
the Tughlak dynasty (1324-51 A.D.),
227-229; expeditions to the south,
228; his cruelties, enforced change
of capital, revolts, revenue exactions,
228, 229.

Mulberry cultivation in Bengal, 405.
Mundavers, a wandering pastoral tribe in
the Anamalai Hills, 71.
Municipal administration and statistics,
350, 361.

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Muslin manufactures of Dacca and
Madras, decline of industry, 472, 473.
Mutiny, The, of 1857-58, 318-322; its
causes, 318, 319; outbreaks at Meerut
and Delhi, 319; spread of the revolt,
320; loyalty of the Sikhs, 320; mas-
sacre at Cawnpore, 320; siege and
relief of Lucknow, 321; siege of Delhi,
321; reduction of Oudh : campaigns of
Sir Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde) and
Sir Hugh Rose (Lord Strathnairn),
321, 322.

Nágá Hills, the most north-easterly off-
shoot of the Himalayas, 29.
Nagpur, the territories of the Marhattá
Bhonslá family, lapsed to the British
for want of heirs, 316.

Nairs, hill tribe of South-Western India,
their polyandry, 71.

Nalanda, famous Buddhist monastery of
the 7th century A.D., 153, 154.
Nána Sahib, his proclamation as Peshwá
at the outbreak of the Mutiny, and
massacre of the Cawnpore garrison,
320, 321.

Nanak Shah, the founder of the Sikh
religion, 311.

Napier, Sir Charles, Conquest of Sind
by (1843), 310, 311.

Náráyan Ráo, sixth Marhatta Peshwa
(1772), his assassination, 262.

Native States of India, their relation to
the British paramount power, 60; area
and population of the twelve groups of
States, 62.

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Nestorianism among early Indian Chris-
tians, 372; Nestorian remnants, 373.
Nicholson, General, his death at the storm
of Delhi, 321.

Nirvana, Buddhist doctrine of, 142, 143.
Nizám Sháhí, Muhammadan dynasty in
Southern India (1490-1636), 232.
Non-Aryan or aboriginal races, 69, 88.
For details, see Table of Contents.
Nomadic cultivation, 64, 417-419.
Normal schools, 368.
Northbrook, Earl of, Viceroy of India
(1872-76), 325, 326; dethronement
of the Gaekwár of Baroda: visit of the
Prince of Wales to India, 326.
Nott, General, his march from Kandahár
to Kábul (1842), 310.

Núr Jahán, the Queen of the Emperor
Jahangir, 244.

Ochterlony, General, his campaigns in
Nepál (1814-15), 302.

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Painting, Indian art of, 121.
Palghat Pass, a remarkable break or gap
in the Western Ghats, 55, 56.
Pálítána, sacred temple city of the Jains,

Palms, Varieties of, 387.

Pándavas, the five brethren: their quarrel
and struggle with the Kauravas, as
related in the Mahábhárata, 126-128.
Pándia, ancient Hindu dynasty in
Southern India, 214, 230, 231.
Pánini, the compiler of the Sanskrit
grammar (350 B.C.), 110, 111.
Pánipat, celebrated battle-field in

Northern India: defeat of Ibráhím
Lodi by Bábar (1526 A.D.), 234; de-
feat of Afgháns by Akbar, and restora-
tion of Humáyún to the throne (1556
A.D.), 235; overthrow of the Marhattás
by the Afgháns under Ahmad Shah
Durání (1761 A.D.), 262.
Paper-making, 485.

Párásnáth, hill in Bengal, sacred to the
Jains, 156.

Passes of the Himálayas, 28, 29.
Patná, East India Company's agency at,
in 1620, 276; massacre of, 288; trade
of, 467.

Pearl fisheries, 495.

Peshwás, rise and progress of their power
(1718-1818), 261-264.

Petroleum or mineral oil, 493.
Phallic emblems in Hinduism, 190.
Physical aspects of India, 25-59.


details, see Table of Contents.
Pindári freebooters, Expedition against
the (1817), 302, 303.
Plassey, Battle of (1757), 285.
Police statistics, 362.

Pollock, his march from the Punjab to
Kábul (1842), 310.

Polyandry among the Nairs and Himá-
layan tribes, 71; polyandry of Drau-
padí, the wife of the five Pándava
brethren in the Mahábhárata, 126,
128, 129.

Pondicherri, British siege of (1747),
282; capitulation of (1761), 283.
Population of India, 60-68. For details,
see Table of Contents.

Portuguese in India, The, 265-269;
Vasco da Gama, 265-267; Cabral,
267; Francisco de Almeida, 267;
Albuquerque, 267, 268; oppressions
of the Portuguese, 268, 269; down-
fall of the Portuguese power, 269;
Portuguese Indian possessions in 1871,



Pottery manufactures, 478, 479.
Precious stones, 494, 495.
Presbyterian missions, 378.
Products and agriculture, 380-431.
details, see Table of Contents.
Protestant missions, 376 379;
Lutheran mission (1705), 376, 377;
Schwartz and the Serampur mission-
aries, 377; translations of the Bible,
377; bishopric of Calcutta and other
Indian sees, 377, 378; statistics, 378,

Puliars, a wild aboriginal tribe in the

Anamalai Hills, Madras, 71.
Pulses, Cultivation of, 386.

Puránas, The, their place in Indian
literature, 135, 201, 202.

Railway system of India, inaugurated by
Lord Dalhousie, 432; extended by
Lord Mayo, 432; the eight guaran-
teed' trunk lines, 433; State narrow-
gauge branch railways, 433; statistics
of traffic and capital invested, 433, 434.
Rainfall of the Himalayas, 29, 30.
Rainfall statistics, 513, 514; Himalayan
rainfall, 29, 30.

Rajputs, their reputed Scythian origin,

Rámánand, Vishnuvite religious reformer

(1300-1400 A.D.): his low caste dis-
ciples, 203.

Rámánuja, Vishnuvite religious reformer
(1150 A.D.), 202, 203.

Rámáyana, the Sanskrit epic relating the
Aryan advance into Southern India,
129; story of Ráma: his exile together
with his wife Sítá, the war with the
aboriginal king of Ceylon, and trium-
phant return, 129-131.

Ranjit Sinh, the founder of the Sikh
kingdom, 311, 312.

Raziya, Empress of Delhi (1236-39
A.D.), the only lady who ever occupied
that throne, 224.

Reptiles, 523; poisonous serpents, 524;
deaths from snake-bite, 524.
Rhinoceros, The, 520.

Rice cultivation in different Provinces :
its numerous varieties, 382, 383; out-
turn, 383; export of, 451, 452.
Rig-Veda, the earliest Sanskrit hymnal,
91, 92; the story of the Aryan advance
into India, 92, 93.

Ripon, Marquis of, present Viceroy of
India (1881): conclusion of the Afghán
war, 327.

River communication, 36, 39, 435, 436.
River plains of India, 40-53; the dif
ferent stages in the life of an Indian
river, 41, 42; Bengal delta and process
of land-making, 42-47; rivers as irri-
gators and highways, 48; destructive
floods, 48-51; poetry of Indian river
names, 51; crops and scenery of the
river plains and the Bengal delta,

River systems of Northern India, 32; of
Southern India, 56, 57.

Roads, 434, 435.

Roberts, Sir Frederick, his march from
Kábul to Kandahár, and defeat of
Ayub Khán, 327.

Roe, Sir Thomas, first British ambassa-
dor to India, in the reign of Jahangir
(1615 A.D.), 244, 275.

Rohilla war, The (1773-74), 292.
Rose, Sir Hugh (Lord Strathnairn):
campaign in Central India, 322.
Rotation of crops, 381.

Safflower, Export of, 453..

Sah, ancient dynasty of Western India
(60 B.C. to 235 A.D.), 169.

Sahu, son and nominal successor of Sam-
bhají, 261.

Sakhi Sarwar, place of pilgrimage in the
Punjab, sacred both to Hindus and
Muhammadans, 189.

Sakuntala, famous Sanskrit drama, 132,

Salbái, Treaty of, 264, 294.

Salt administration, 347, 348; sources
of supply and systems of manufac
ture, 347, 489, 490; the Madras mono-
poly, 347, 348; equalization of duty,

Saltpetre, Manufacture of, 490, 491.
Salt Range, Geology of, 498.
Sáma-Veda, The, 98.

Sambhaji, son and successor of Sivaji,
put to death by Aurangzeb, 260.
Sankara Acharya, a Sivaite religious re-
former, 195, 196.

Santáls, an aboriginal tribe of Bengal,
73-76; their village government, 73;
social ceremonies, 73, 74; religion,
74; the Santáls under British rule,
75; Santál rising (1855), 75, 76.
Satara, Native State, lapsed to the British
for want of heirs (1849), 315.
Sati, or widow-burning, abolition of the
rite by Lord W. Bentinck, 306.
Sayyid dynasty, The (1414-50), 230.
Schools. See Educational statistics.
Sculpture, 479.

Scythic invasions and inroads, 166-176.

For details, see Table of Contents.
Segauli, Treaty of, at the termination of
the Gurkha war (1814-15), 302.
Seleukos, Alexander's successor to his
conquests in Bactria and the Punjab
(312-306 B.C.): cession of the Punjab
to Chandra Gupta, 161.
Seringapatam, Capture of, and death of
Tipu Sultán, 298, 299.

Serpent-worship, its influences on Hin-
duism, 190.

Shah Jahán, fifth Mughal Emperor of
India (1628-58 A.D.), 245-248; chief
events of his reign, 245; loss of Kan-
dahár, 246; Deccan conquests, 246;
Taj Mahal and other architectural
works, 246, 247; revenues, 248; de-
position by his rebellious son, Prince
Aurangzeb, 247, 248; magnificence of
his court, 248.

Sháhjí Bhonslá, founder of the Marhattá
power, 258, 259.

Sheep and goats, 412.

Shore, Sir John, Governor-General of
India (1793-98), 296.

Shrines common to different faiths, 189.
Sikhs, History of the, 311; Nának, the
founder of the religious sect, 311;
Ranjit Sinh, the founder of the king-
dom, 311, 312; first Sikh war (1845):
battles of Múdkí, Firozshahr, Aliwal,
and Sobráon, 312; second Sikh war
(1848-49) battles of Chiliánwála and
Gujrát, 313, 314; annexation of the
Punjab and its pacification, 314;
loyalty of the Sikhs during the Mutiny
of 1857, 320.


Síláditya, Buddhist King of Northern
India (634 A.D.), 153.

Silk and sericulture, 403-406; the Com-
pany's factories, 404; area and out-
turn, 404-406; silk weaving, 473,
474; steam silk factories, 578.
Silt islands in the Brahmaputra, 35, 36.
Sindhia, the family name of the ruler of

the Marhattá State of Gwalior in
Central India: rise of the family to
power, 263; wars with the English,
Siráj-ud-daulá, Nawab of Bengal (1756-
1757), 284, 285; capture of Calcutta
by, 284; the Black Hole,' 284; re-
capture of Calcutta and battle of
Plassey, 284, 285.
Sirhind Canal, 421.

Sivaji the Great (1627 - 80), his hill
forts and guerilla warfare, 259, 260;
coins money and enthrones himself,

Siva, the third person in the Hindu
triad, 108.

Siva-worship, 195-200; twofold aspects
of Siva and his wife: their philosophi-
cal and terrible forms, 196-198; human
sacrifice, 190; the thirteen Sivaite
sects, 199; secret orgies in Siva-
worship, 200.

Siwálik Hills, an offshoot of the Himá-
layas; geology of, 497, 498.
Slate, 494.

Slave kings, The (1206-90 A.D.), 223-

Sobráon, Battle of, 312.
Somnath, Sack of, by Mahmud of
Ghazní (1024 A.D.), 218, 219; the
Somnáth proclamation and procession
of the so-called Gates by Lord Ellen-
borough, 310.

Son irrigation works, 423.
Spices, Cultivation of, 387.
Subuktigin, first Túrkí invader of India
(977 A.D.), 217.

Súdras, the servile caste of ancient
India, 101.

Sufed Koh, range in Afghánistán, an
offshoot of the Himalayas, 29.
Sugar-cane, Cultivation of, 387, 388.
Sulaimán, range of hills, marking the
boundary between British territory and
Afghánistán, 29.

Sunspot cycles, 514, 515.
Sutlej, great river of the Punjab and
chief tributary of the Indus, 33.
Sutras or sacred Sanskrit traditions, 99.
Swally, Defeat of the Portuguese fleet at
(1615), 274.

Sydapet model farm, in Madras, 407,

Takhti Sulaimán, mountain in the
Suláimán range, 29.

Takshaks, The, an early Scythian tribe
in the Punjab, 172.

Tálikot, Battle of, and overthrow of the
Vijayanagar kingdom (1565), 232,

Tasar or jungle silk-worm, 405, 406.
Tea cultivation and manufacture, 398-
402; indigenous to Assam, 398; early
experiments and failures, 398, 399;
rapid progress of the industry, 399;
statistics of out-turn, 399, 400; varieties
of the plant, 400; soil, 401; the work
of a tea-garden, 401, 402; export of,

Temperature of various stations, 511, 512.
Thagi or professional strangling, Sup-

pression of, by Lord W. Bentinck, 307.
Thall ghát, mountain pass in the
Western Ghats, 55.

Tibeto-Burmans, non-Aryan tribes of the
lower Himálayas, their languages, 79,
83, 84.

Tiger, The, 516, 517.

Timur (Tamerlane), Invasion of (1398
A.D.), 230.

Tin in British Burma, 493.

Tobacco cultivation and manufacture,

growth of the trade, 394.

Todar Mall, Akbar's Hindu general and
finance minister: his revenue settle-

ment, 237-241.

Trade, commerce and, 438-468. For

details, see Table of Contents.
Trade-guilds, 183-185.

Treasure, Import of, 448, 449.

Tughlak dynasty, The (1320-1414 A.D.),

Tungabhadra irrigation works, 424.
Túrkí invasions of India, 217-219.
Turmeric, Export of, 453.

Universities, 364, 365.

Vaisya or cultivating caste of ancient
India, 101.

Valabhi, ancient Indian dynasty in
Western India and Sind (480-722
A.D.): their overthrow by Arab in-
vaders of Sind, 169.

Vallabha - swámí, Vishnuvite religious
reformer (1520 A.D.): Krishna-wor-
ship, 206, 207.

Válmiki, the reputed composer of the
Rámáyana, 129-131.

Vasco da Gama, his three voyages to
India, and death at Cochin, 267,

Vedas, the four Sanskrit hymnals, 98,

Vegetables, Cultivation of, 386, 387.
Vellore, Mutiny of (1806), 301.
Vijayanagar, Hindu kingdom of Southern
India (1185-1565), 231; subjugation
by the Muhammadans at the battle of
Tálikot, 232.

Vikramaditya, King of Ujjain (57 B.C.):
his wars with the Scythian invaders,
131, 168-170.

Vindhyas, Geology of, 500.

Vishnu, the second person of the Hindu
trinity, 108.
Vishnu-worship, 200-211; Vishnu and
Siva compared, 200; incarnations of
Vishnu, 200, 201; the Vishnu Purána,
201, 202; Vishnuvite religious re-
formers (1150-1520 A.D.), 202-207;
Vishnuvite sects, 207, 208; Jagannath,

Vital statistics of India, 529-542. For
details, see Table of Contents.
Vyása, Bráhman sage, the legendary
compiler of the four Vedas (3001 B.C.),
and of the epic of the Mahábhárata,

Wandewash, Battle of, and defeat of the
French under Lally (1761), 283.
Wargaum, Convention of (1779), 294.
Warren Hastings. See Hastings,

Wellesley, Marquis of, Governor-General
of India (1798-1803), 296-300; French
influence in India, 296, 297; Lord
Wellesley's work, 297, 298; treaty
with the Nizám, 298; third Mysore
war and storming of Seringapatam,
298, 399; second Marhattá war (1802-
1804), 299, 300.

Wheat, Statistics of cultivation and out-
turn of, 384, 385; export of, 452.
Wilson, Mr. James, his financial reforms
after the Mutiny, 324.
Wood-carving, 479, 480.

Xavier, St. Francis, and his work in
India, 373.

Yajur-Veda, The, 98.

Yama, the Hindu god of death, 95, 96.
Yandabu, Treaty of (1826), 305.
Yavanas, The, name applied to Greeks
and Scythians by the Brahmans, 165.
Yoma, mountain range in Burma, 26.

Zoology and botany of India, 516-528.
For details, see Table of Contents.

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