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Means of communication, 435-437. For

details, see Table of Contents,
Medicine, Bráhmanical system of, 115-

117 ; modern medical schools, 118.
Meerut, Outbreak of the Mutiny at, 319.
Megasthenes, Seleukos' ambassador to

the court of Chandra Gupta, 157, 161;
his description of India and of Indian

society (300 B.C.), 161-163.
Meghna, the estuary of the Brahmaputra

river, 35.
Metcalfe, Lord, Governor-General of

India (1835-36), 307, 208.
Meteorology, 505-515. For details, see

Table of Contents.
Mhairs, aboriginal tribe in Rajputána,
Murshid Kuli Khán, Nawab of Bengal,

Lodi dynasty, The (1450-1526 A.D.), 230.
Lucknow, Siege and relief of, 321.
Lytton, Lord, Viceroy of India (1876-
1880): Proclamation of the Queen as
Empress of India : great famine of
1877-78 : second Afghán war, 326,

327.
Macnaghten, Sir William, Assassination

of, at Kábul (1839), 309.
Manh áo, fourth Marhattá Peshwa

(1761-72): the five Marhattá houses,

262.
Madhu Ráo Narayan, sixth Marhatta

Peshwa (1774-95): first Marhattá war,
and treaty of Salbái, 264.
Madras, founded in 1639, 277, 281;

capture of, by the French: seige of,
by the English : restoration to the

British, 282.
Jadrasa, Muhammadan college of Cal.

cutta, 363.
Mahabharata, the epic poem of the

heroic age in Northern India : the
struggle between the Kauravas and

Pandavas, 125-129.
Malımúd of Ghazní (1001-1030 A.D.),

his seventeen invasions of India, 217,
218; patriotic resistance of the Hindus,
218; sack of Somnáth, 218, 219; con-

quest of the Punjab), 219.
Mahmúd Tughlak, last king of the Tughlak
dynasty (1389-1412 A.D.): invasion of

Timur (Tamerlane), 230.
Málik Káfur, slave general of Alá-ud-din

(1303-15), his conquest of Southern

India, 226.
Mán Sinli, Akbar's Hindu general and

governor of Bengal, 237.
Manu, the founder of Sanskrit law, 121,

87.
Miání, Defeat of the Sind Mirs at, by Sir

C. Napier (1843), 311.
Millets, Statistics of cultivation of, and

the chief varieties, 385.
Minerals and mines, 486-495. For

details, see Table of Contents.
Mines and minerals, 486-495. For

details, see Table of Contents.
Minto, Earl of, Governor-General of

India (1807-13): expeditions to Java
and Mauritius: embassies

to the
Punjab, Afghánistán, and Persia,

301.
Mir Jumla's unsuccessful expedition to

Assam in the reign of Aurangzeb,

251.
Model farms, the small success hitherto

attained, 407, 408.
Moira, Earl of. See Hastings, Marquis

of.
Monson, Colonel, his retreat before

Holkar, 300.
Mornington, Lord. Sce Wellesley, Mar.
Múdki, Battle of, 312.
Mughal Empire, The, 234-257. For

details, see Table of Contents.
Muhammad of Ghor, the first king of the

Ghor dynasty in India (1186-1206):
his conquests in Northern India and
overthrow of the Rajput clans, 220,
222 ; subjugation of Bengal and defeat
of its last independent king (1203),

I 22.

quis of.

222.

Manufactures and arts, 469-485. For

details, see Table of Contents.
Manure, use of, 381; want of, 409,

410.
Marble, 493.
Marhattás, The, 258-264. For details,

see Table of Contents.
Máriás, aboriginal tribe in the Central

Provinces, 71.
Márís, aboriginal tribe in the Central

Provinces, 71.
Masulipatam, East India Company's.

factory established at (in 1622), 276.
Mathematics, Brahmanical system of,

115.
Mayo, Earl of, Viceroy of India (1869-

1872): the Ambála darbár: visit of
the Duke of Edinburgh : administrative
reforms : abolition of customs lines :
assassination at the Andaman islands,
325.

Muhammad Tughlak, second king of

the Tughlak dynasty (1324-51 A.D.),
227-229; expeditions to the south,
228; his cruelties, enforced change
of capital, revolts, revenue exactions,

228, 229.
Mulberry cultivation in Bengal, 405.
Mundavers, a wandering pastoral tribe in

the Anamalai Hills, 71.
Municipal administration and statistics,

350, 361.

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283, 284.
Music, 119, 120.
Muslin manufactures of Dacca and

Madras, decline of industry, 472, 473.
Mutiny, The, of 1857-58, 318-322 ; its

causes, 318, 319; outbreaks at Meerut
and Delhi, 319; spread of the revolt,
320 ; loyalty of the Sikhs, 320; mas.
sacre at Cawnpore, 320 ; siege and
relief of Lucknow, 321 ; siege of Delhi,
321 ; reduction of Oudh : campaigns of
Sir Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde) and
Sir Hugh Rose (Lord Strathnairn),
321, 322.

Oil-seeds, Cultivation of, 386; export of,

452.
Opium, Cultivation of, 392, 393.
Orissa famine of 1866, 324; irrigation

works in, 423.
Oudh, Annexation of, 316, 317 ; Lord

Dalhousie's justification of the measure,

317 ; the Mutiny in, 321, 322.
Outram, Sir James, his work among the

Bhils of Khándesh, 87, 88 ; annexation
of Oudh, 317; relief of Lucknow, 321.

156.

Nágá Hills, the most north-easterly off-

shoot of the Himalayas, 29.
Nágpur, the territories of the Marhattá

Bhonslá family, lapsed to the British

for want of heirs, 316.
Nairs, hill tribe of South-Western India,

their polyandry, 71.
Nalanda, famous Buddhist monastery of

the 7th century A.N., 153, 154.
Nána Sahib, his proclamation as Peshwa

at the outbreak of the Mutiny, and
massacre of the Cawnpore garrison,
320, 321.
Nanak Shah, the founder of the Sikh

religion, 311.
Napier, Sir Charles, Conquest of Sind

by (1843), 310, 311.
Narayan Ráo, sixth Manhatta Peshwa

(1772), his assassination, 262.
Native States of India, their relation to

the British paramount power, 60; area
and population of the twelve groups of

States, 62.
Natural calamities. See Famines.
Nestorianism among early Indian Chris-

tians, 372; Nestorian remnants, 373.
Nicholson, General, his death at the storm

of Delhi, 321.
Nirvana, Buddhist doctrine of, 142, 143.
Nizam Shahí, Muhammadan dynasty in

Southern India (1490-1636), 232.
Non-Aryan or aboriginal races, 69, 88.

For details, see Table of Contents.
Nomadic cultivation, 64, 417-419.
Normal schools, 368.
Northbrook, Earl of, Viceroy of India

(1872-76), 325, 326; dethronement
of the Gaekwár of Baroda : visit of the

Prince of Wales to India, 326.
Nott, General, his march from Kandahár

to Kábul (1842), 310.
Núr Jahán, the Queen of the Emperor

Jahángír, 244.
Ochterlony, General, his campaigns in

Nepál (1814-15), 302.

Painting, Indian art of, 121.
Palghát Pass, a remarkable break or gap

in the Western Ghats, 55, 56.
Pálítána, sacred temple city of the Jains,
Palms, Varieties of, 387.
Pándavas, the five brethren : their quarrel

and struggle with the Kauravas, as

related in the Mahabharata, 126-128.
Pándia, ancient

Hindu dynasty
Southern India, 214, 230, 231.
Pánini, the compiler of the Sanskrit

grammar (350 B.C.), 110, III.
Panipat, celebrated hattle-field in

Northern India : defeat of Ibrahim
Lodi by Bábar (1526 A.D.), 234; de-
feat of Afgháns by Akbar, and restora-
tion of Humáyún to the throne (1556
A.D.), 235; overthrow of the Marhattás
by the Afgháns under Ahmad Shah

Durání (1761 A.D.), 262.
Paper-making, 485.
Párásnáth, hill in Bengal, sacred to the

Jains, 156.
Passes of the Himalayas, 28, 29.
Patná, East India Company's agency at,

in 1620, 276; massacre of, 288; trade

of, 467.
Pearl fisheries, 495.
Peshwas, rise and progress of their power

(1718-1818), 261-264.
Petroleum or mineral oil, 493.
Phallic emblems in Hinduism, 190.
Physical aspects of India, 25-59.

details, see Table of Contents,
Pindárí freebooters, Expedition against

the (1817), 302, 303.
Plassey, Battle of (1757), 285.
Police statistics, 362.
Pollock, his march from the Punjab to

· Kábul (1842), 310.
Polyandry among the Nairs and Hima.

layan tribes, 71 ; polyandry of Drau-
padi, the wife of the five Pándava
brethren in the Mahábhárata, 126,

128, 129.
Pondicherri, British siege of (1747),

282; capitulation of (1761), 283.
Population of India, 60-68. For details,

see Table of Contents.

For

Portuguese in India, The, 265 - 269;

Vasco da Gama, 265-267 ; Cabral,
267; Francisco de Almeida, 267 ;
Albuquerque, 267, 268; oppressions
of the Portuguese, 268, 269; down-
fall of the Portuguese power, 269 ;
Portuguese Indian possessions in 1871,

269.
Pottery manufactures, 478, 479.
Precious stones, 494, 495.
Presbyterian missions, 378.
Products and agriculture, 380-431. For

details, see Table of Contents.
Protestant missions, 376 - 379; first

Lutheran mission (1705), 376, 377 ;
Schwartz and the Serampur mission-
aries, 377 ; translations of the Bible,
377 ; bishopric of Calcutta and other
Indian sees, 377, 378; statistics, 378,

379.
Puliars, a wild aboriginal tribe in the

Anamalai Hills, Madras, 71.
Pulses, Cultivation of, 386.
Puranas, The, their place in Indian

literature, 135, 201, 202.
Railway system of India, inaugurated by

Lord Dalhousie, 432; extended by
Lord Mayo, 432; the eight ‘guaran-
teed’ trunk lines, 433 ; State narrow-
gauge branch railways, 433; statistics

of traffic and capital invested, 433, 434.
Rainfall of the Himalayas, 29, 30.
Rainfall statistics, 513, 514; Himálayan

rainfall, 29, 30.
Rájputs, their reputed Scythian origin,

167
Rámánand, Vishnuvite religious reformer

(1300-1400 A.D.): his low caste dis-

ciples, 203.
Rámánuja, Vishnuvite religious reformer

(1150 A.D.), 202, 203.
Rímáyana, the Sanskrit epic relating the

Aryan advance into Southern India,
129; story of Ráma: his exile together
with his wife Sítá, the war with the
aboriginal king of Ceylon, and trium-

phant return, 129-131.
Ranjit Sinh, the founder of the Sikh

kingdom, 311, 312.
Raziya, Empress of Delhi (1236 - 39

A.D.), the only lady who ever occupied

that throne, 224.
Reptiles, 523; poisonous serpents, 524;

deaths from snake-bite, 524.
Rhinoceros, The, 520.
Rice cultivation in different Provinces :

its numerous varieties, 382, 383; out.

turn, 383 ; export of, 451, 452.
Rig-Veda, the earliest Sanskrit hymnal,

91,92; the story of the Aryan advance
into India, 92, 93.

Ripon, Marquis of, present Viceroy of

İndia (1881): conclusion of the Afghán

war, 327
River communication, 36, 39, 435, 436.
River plains of India, 40-53; the dif.

ferent stages in the life of an Indian
river, 41, 42 ; Bengal delta and process
of land-making, 42-47; rivers as irri.
gators and highways, 48; destructive
floods, 48-51 ; poetry of Indian river
names, 51; crops and scenery of the
river plains and the Bengal delta,

51-53.
River systems of Northern India, 32; of

Southern India, 56, 57.
Roads, 434, 435.
Roberts, Sir Frederick, his march from

Kábul to Kandahar, and defeat of

Ayub Khán, 327.
Roe, Sir Thomas, first British ambassa-

dor to India, in the reign of Jahangir

(1615 A.D.), 244, 275.
Rohilla war, The (1773-74), 292.
Rose, Sir Hugh (Lord Strathnairn):

campaign in Central India, 322.
Rotation of crops, 381.
Safflower, Export of, 453.
Sah, ancient dynasty of Western India

(60 B.C. to 235 A.D.), 169.
Sahu, son and nominal successor of Sam.

bhaji, 261.
Sakhi Sarwar, place of pilgrimage in the

Punjab, sacred both to Hindus and

Muhammadans, 189.
Sakuntala, famous Sanskrit drama, 132,

133.
Salbái, Treaty of, 264, 294.
Salt administration, 347, 348; sources

of supply and systems of manufac-
ture, 347, 489, 490; the Madras mono-
poly, 347, 348; equalization of duty,

348.
Saltpetre, Manufacture of, 490, 491.
Salt Range, Geology of, 498.
Sáma-Veda, The, 98.
Sambhají, son and successor of Sivaji,

put to death by Aurangzeb, 260.
Sankara Acharya, a Sivaite religious re-

former, 195, 196.
Santáls, an aboriginal tribe of Bengal,

73-76; their village governmeni, 73;
social ceremonies, 73, 74; religion,
74; the Santáls under British rule,

75; Santál rising (1855), 75, 76.
Satára, Native State, lapsed to the British

for want of heirs (1849), 315.
Sati, or widow-burning, abolition of the

rite by Lord W. Bentinck, 306.
Sayyid dynasty, The (14[4.50), 230.
Schools. See Educational statistics.
Sculpture, 479.

Siva-worship, 195-200 ; twofoll aspects

of Siva and his wife : their philosophi-
cal and terrible forms, 196-198; human
sacrifice, 190; the thirteen Sivaite
sects, 199; secret orgies in Siva.

worship, 200.
Siwálik Hills, an offshoot of the Hima.

layas ; geology of, 497, 498.
Slate, 494.
Slave kings, The (1206-90 A.D.), 223-

225.
Sobráon, Battle of, 312.
Somnáth, Sack of, by Mahmúd of

Ghazní (1024 A.D.), 218, 219; the
Somnáth proclamation and procession
of the so-called Gates by Lord Ellen-

borough, 310.
Son irrigation works, 423.
Spices, Cultivation of, 387.
Subuktigin, first Túrki invader of India

(977 A.D.), 217.
Súdras, the servile caste of ancient

India, 101.
Sused Koh, range in Afghánistán, an

offshoot of the Himalayas, 29.
Sugar-cane, Cultivation of, 387, 388.
Sulaimán, range of hills, marking the

boundary between British territory and

Afghánistán, 29.
Sunspot cycles, 514, 515.
Sutlej, great river of the Punjab and

chief tributary of the Indus, 33.
Sutras or sacred Sanskrit traditions, 99.
Swally, Defeat of the Portuguese fleet at

(1615), 274.
Sydapet model farm, in Madras, 407,

408.
Takht -i - Sulaimán, mountain in the

Sulaimán range, 29.
Takshaks, The, an early Scythian tribe

in the Punjab, 172.
Tálikot, Battle of, and overthrow of the

Vijayanagar kingdom (1565), 232,

.

Scythic invasions and inroads, 166-176.

For details, see Table of Contents.
Segauli, Treaty of, at the termination of

the Gúrkha war (1814-15), 302.
Seleukos, Alexander's successor to his

conquests in Bactria and the Punjab
(312-306 B.C.): cession of the Punjab

to Chandra Gupta, 161.
Seringapatam, Capture of, and death of

Tipu Sultán, 298, 299.
Serpent-worship, its influences on Hin.

duism, 190.
Shah Jahán, fifth Mughal Emperor of

India (1628-58 A.D.), 245-248; chief
events of his reign, 245; loss of Kan-
dahár, 246; Deccan conquests, 246;
Taj Mahal and other architectural
works, 246, 247 ; revenues, 248; de-
position by his rebellious son, Prince
Aurangzeb, 247, 248; magnificence of

his court, 248.
Shahji Bhonslá, founder of the Marhattá

power, 258, 259.
Sheep and goats, 412.
Shore, Sir John, Governor-General of

India (1793-98), 296.
Shrines common to different faiths, 189.
Sikhs, History of the, 311; Nának, the

founder of the religious sect, 311;
Ranjit Sinh, the founder of the king.
dom, 311, 312; first Sikh war (1845):
battles of Múdki, Firozshahr, Aliwal,
and Sobráon, 312; second Sikh war
(1848-49) : battles of 'Chilianwala and
Gujrát, 313, 314; annexation of the
Punjab and its pacification, 314;
loyalty of the Sikhs during the Mutiny

of 1857, 320.
Síláditya, Buddhist King of Northern

India (634 A.D.), 153.
Silk and sericulture, 403-406; the Com.

pany's factories, 404; area and out.
turn, 404-406; silk weaving, 473,

474 ; steam silk factories, 578.
Silt islands in the Brahmaputra, 35, 36.
Sindhia, the family name of the ruler of

the Marhatta State of Gwalior in
Central India : rise of the family to
power, 263; wars with the English,

264.
Siraj-ud-daula, Nawab of Bengal (1756-

1757), 284, 285; capture of Calcutta
by, 284 ; the Black Hole,' 284; re.
capture of Calcutta and battle of
Plassey, 284, 285.
Sirhind Canal, 421.
Sivaji the Great (1627 - 80), his hill

forts and guerilla warfare, 259, 260 ;
coins money and enthrones himself,

260.
Siva, the third person in the Hindu

triad, 108.

233.
Tasar or jungle silk-worm, 405, 406.
Tea cultivation and manufacture, 398.

402 ; indigenous to Assam, 398 ; early
experiments and failures, 398, 399;
rapid progress of the industry, 399 ;
statistics of out-turn, 399, 400; varieties
of the plant, 400 ; soil, 401; the work
of a tea.garden, 401, 402 ; export of,

453.
Temperature of various stations, 511, 512.
Thagi or professional strangling, Sup.

pression of, by Lord W. Bentinck, 307.
Thall - ghát, mountain pass in the

Western Ghats, 55.
Tibeto-Burmans, non-Aryan tribes of the
lower Himalayas, their languages, 79,
83, 84.

.

Tiger, The, 516, 517.

Vishnu, the second person of the Hindu
Timur (Tamerlane), Invasion of (1398

trinity, 108.
A.D.), 230.

Vishnu-worship, 200-211; Vishnu and
Tin in British Burma, 493.

Siva compared, 200; incarnations of
Tobacco cultivation and manufacture, Vishnu, 200, 201; the Vishnu Purana,
growth of the trade, 394.

201, 202; Vishnuvite religious re.
Todar Mall, Akbar's Hindu general and formers (1150-1520 A.D.), 202-207;

finance minister : his revenue settle- Vishnuvite sects, 207, 208; Jagannath,
ment, 237-241.

208-211.
Trade, commerce and, 438 - 468. For Vital statistics of India, 529-542. For
details, see Table of Contents.

details, see Table of Contents.
Trade-guilds, 183-185.

Vyása, Brahman sage, the legendary
Treasure, Import of, 448, 449.

compiler of the four Vedas (3001 B.C.),
Tughlak dynasty, The (1320-1414 A.D.), and of the epic of the Mahábhárata,
227-230.

125.
Tungabhadra irrigation works, 424.
Túrki invasions of India, 217-219.

Wandewash, Battle of, and defeat of the
Turmeric, Export of, 453.

French under Lally (1761), 283.

Wargaum, Convention of (1779), 294.
Universities, 364, 365.

Warren Hastings. See Hastings,

Warren.
Vaisya or cultivating caste of ancient Wellesley, Marquis of, Governor-General
India, 101.

of India (1798-1803), 296-300; French
Valabhi, ancient Indian dynasty in influence in India, 296, 297 ; Lord

Western India and Sind (480-722 Wellesley's work, 297, 298; treaty
A.D.): their overthrow by Arab in- with the Nizám, 298; third Mysore
vaders of Sind, 169.

war and storming of Seringapatam,
Vallabha - swámí, Vishnuvite religious

298, 399 ; second Marhatta war (1802-
reformer (1520 A.D.): Krishna-wor- 1804), 299, 300.
ship, 206, 207.

Wheat, Statistics of cultivation and out-
Válmiki, the reputed composer of the turn of, 384, 385; export of, 452.
Rámáyana, 129-131.

Wilson, Mr. James, his financial reforms
Vasco da Gama, his three voyages to

after the Mutiny, 324.
India, and death at Cochin, 267, Wood-carving, 479, 480.

268.
Vedas, the four Sanskrit hymnals, 98, Xavier, St. Francis, and his work in
99.

India, 373.
Vegetables, Cultivation of, 386, 387.
Vellore, Mutiny of (1806), 301.

Yajur Veda, The, 98.
Vijayanagar, Hindu kingdom of Southern Yama, the Hindu god of death, 95, 96.

India (1185-1565), 231; subjugation Yandabu, Treaty of (1826), 305.
by the Muhammadans at the battle of Yavanas, The, name applied to Greeks
Tálikot, 232.

and Scythians by the Brahmans, 165.
Vikramaditya, King of Ujjain (57 B.c.): Yoma, mountain range in Burma, 26.

his wars with the Scythian invaders,
131, 168-170.

Zoology and botany of India, 516-528.
Vindhyás, Geology of, 500.

For details, see Table of Contents.

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