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peaked heights, to keep an enemy at bay from approaching the wooded valleys and narrow defiles of the country. Probably, the fortifications, seen in ruins on the southern cliff, were first erected by Shere Shah, and then repaired by Sultan Shooja, when they had respectively to defend themselves -- the one, from the approach of Hoomayoon, and the other from that of Meer Jumla. There may exist inscriptions, and local inquiries on the spot ought to settle the truth. Passing Terriagurry, one falls into the Anga of ancient Hindoo geography. The stupendous wall of rocks, the detached cliffs, the sloping dales, the warm dry soil, the stouter and healthier cattle, and a more manly-looking race-proclaim it to be a different country from that of Bengal.

It was near sunset, and the chain of hills stood full in sight, rising in lofty ranks. High above the rest towered Peer-Pointee, and projected far in a promontory into the bed of the river. Many centuries before Father or St Pointee had chosen this favoured spot for his abode, had the banks of the Ganges here been covered with shrines, altars, and temples of the Buddhists, and the remains of these antiquities form great curiosities for the traveller. The Pattur-ghatta cave, with its sculptures, is a remarkable object for sightseeing. Long had a tradition been current, that a certain Rajah had desired to explore it, and set out with an immense suite, 100,000 torch-bearers, and 100,000 measures of oil, but never returned. The interminable cave of native imagination has been exColgong.Bhagulpore.


plored, and found to be not more than 136 feet long, and 24 broad. It has no pillar or beam to support its roof.

The Mussulman saint after whom Peer-Pointee is now called, lies buried here. His tomb stands on a little cliff above the river, overhung by some fine bamboos.

Next is Colgong, a pretty and pleasant spot. Here, in the bed of the river, are seen three very picturesque rocks. In vulgar Hindoo tradition, they are supposed to have formed the hearth of Bheema Pandava. This is a difficult place to navigate for its strong eddies and rapids, and, under the pressure of a little more steam, the vessel proceeded like a bellowing, blowing, and blustering monster, at which Bheema would have been scared to take to his heels, leaving his savoury pot of kicheery. In passing, we found the rocks to consist of huge boulders piled one upon another, and tufted with trees growing in their clefts. The westernmost one is the largest, and is inhabited by a faqueer.

Eighteen miles higher up is Bhagulpore, the capital of the ancient Angas, and the Champa of our old geography. The Buddhists are said to have taken possession of it prior to the Christian era, and, most probably, to have retained it till the downfall of their religion in the eleventh century. Hwen Thsang speaks of it in his itinerary, and alludes to the 'ruins of several monasteries in its neighbourhood.' But though of such great antiquity, and promising an interesting field for observation, it has scarcely any curiosities for the traveller. The town is situated in a low, open valley, wooded with a super-abundance of trees and vegetation, the putrefaction of which engenders the malaria that is the cause of its unhealthiness. Much of its salubrity is owing also to the impregnation of the soil with saline matter. On a subsequent occasion, when we had put up here in a bungalow, we found the ground-floor to be as moist and damp as in Calcutta. The air was heavy, , and had no dryness even in November. The excess of vegetation closing the prospects on all sides, made the spirits gloomy, and to lose all their elasticity. Bishop Heber says, the place is very much infested by cobras --well may they luxuriate in such a dark jungly land. Nothing but mean huts scattered at places, and a few decayed mosques, make up the features of the native portion of the town,

The most curious of all objects at Baghulpore are two ancient Round Towers, each about seventy feet high. Nobody now remembers anything about them, and the age and object of their erection are matters involved in the deepest obscurity. From their close resemblance to the pyrethra so common in Affghanistan and elsewhere, they are supposed to be ‘Buddhist monuments of yore.' They happen to be so little known, that, on inquiring about them from a Baboo, resident here for twenty years, he answered that he was not aware of their existence.

Cleveland's Monuments.—There are two of them. The one erected by the Hindoos is in the form of a pagoda, in a pretty situation by the-river side. It is a

Cleveland's Monuments.


tribute of Hindoo gratitude to commemorate the goodness and generosity of their benefactor. The other one was erected by Government to perpetuate the memory of his meritorious services. Upon that monument is the following inscription, remarkable for truths deserving the widest publicity :

TO THE MEMORY OF AUGUSTUS CLEVELAND, ESQ. Late Collector of the districts of Bhagulpore and Rajmahal,

Who, without bloodshed or the terrors of authority, Employing only the means of conciliation, confidence, and benevolence,

Attempted and accomplished The entire subjection the lawless and savage inhabitants of the

Jungleterry of Rajmahal, Who had long infested the neighbouring lands by their predatory

incursions, Inspired them with a taste for the arts of civilized life, And attached them to the British Government by a conquest over

their minds -
The most permanent, as the most rational mode of dominion.

In honour of his character, and for example to others,

Have ordered this monument to be erected.
He departed this life on the 13th day of January—1784, aged 29.

It is particularly remarkable, that the Government which endorsed the opinion that a conquest orer the mind is the most permanent, as rell as the most rational, mode of dominion, should have undertaken to depose Cheyte Sing, rob the Begums of Oude, and ravage the fair province of Rohilcund.

Very few men are aware that the school first set up by Mr Cleveland for the education of the hill-people has produced a Santhal gentleman, who has embraced Christianity, connected himself by marriage in a respectable family, is brother-in-law to a gentleman of the Calcutta bar, and holds a respectable post under Government at Bhagulpore.

The Mount Mandar, celebrated in the Pouranic legends for the churning of the ocean, lies southward of Bhagulpore. It is remarkable as being of granite, whilst all the other hills in the neighbourhood are of limestone. Originally, it was a seat of Buddhist worship, and a place of Buddhist pilgrimage, when these wild and uninhabited parts probably formed populous and flourishing districts.

This was, we think, when Buddhist kings reigned in Magadha and Gour. On the downfall of Buddhism, Mandar fell into the hands of the Shivites, and became a seat of their god so as to rival Benares, and form, as the Kasikhund states, a second Kailasa. The legend of the churning of the ocean is an interpolation in the Mahabharat, which evidently refers to the contest between the Brahmins (soors) and the Buddhists (asoors) —the great serpent Vasookee-alluding to the sect of the Nagas.

Jangerah and Sultangung.--Sailing up from Bhagulpore, 'the first object of interest which arrests the attention of the traveller is a singular mass of granite towering abruptly to the height of about a hundred feet from the bed of the river. Its natural beauty and romantic situation have long since dedicated it to the service of religion ; and Jangeerah, the name of the rock in question, has been associated with many a tale of love and arms.' The 'Fakeer of Jangeerah' is the subject of a poem by that gifted East Indian, Mr

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