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Accordingly, the corporeal organism and consciousness are the two chief groups uniting themselves again to produce the three other groups of sensation, of perception, and of the activities of the mind as their common result.*

They are, in their mutual conditionality, the real substrata of the personality and produce the "body endowed with consciousness," as it is always said in the Dialogues.

"In so far only, Ananda, as one can be born, or grow old, or die, or dissolve, or reappear, in so far only is there any process of verbal expression, in so far only is there any process of explanation, in so far only is there any process of manifestation, in so far only is there any sphere of knowledge, in so far only do we go round the wheel of life up to our appearance amid the conditions of this world,-in as far as

the tender fibres. Thereupon he should saw the trunk into pieces and split these and so reduce them to chips. The chips he should let become dry by wind and sun, then he should burn them and change them to ashes, and the ashes he should give to the winds or let them be carried away by the streaming floods of a river. Thus the shadow conditioned by the tree would be radically destroyed, like a palm-tree disrooted from the soil, it would be annihilated and not be able to arise again. In exactly the same (radical) manner all sensations will be extinguished when the body dissolves." (Angutta Nik. II, p. 198.)

* The first one of the five groups, the group of corporeal form, or of corporeality, rūpakkhandha, therefore is meant as being the same we already know as nāma-rupa. This is beyond doubt. For on one side, rūpakkhandha comprises within itself the body able to live: "If corporeality,—that is, rūpa, the object of the first group- - was the self, ye monks, then it could not be exposed to malady." (Mahavagga I, 6.) On the other hand, as we have seen, nāma-rūpa is just this body able to live.-That the first group nevertheless is only designated as rāpakkhandha, without mentioning nama, has its reason only therein that, in speaking of rūpa, vitality is considered to be included as selfevident, as we too, when we mean a living body, simply speak of a body. Rūpa is only specially designated by nama and thereby designated as nama-rūpa, if the vitality of rūpa is to be rendered especially conspicuous. Such is the case in the passages of the Paticcasamuppāda cited above, wherein the proof had to be given that only a body able to live might be a sufficient cause for producing concrete sensation and perception. Therefore rapakkhandha is, properly speaking, nama-rūpakkhandha. By the way, that nāma must be contained in rūpakkhandha, follows already from nama not being able to be separated from rupa, but both being absolutely inseparable, so that where one of them is, the other also must be present (cf. above p. 70 note *). If, on the other hand, also the three other khandha, vedanā, saññā and sankhara are comprised in other passages under the designation of nama, the meaning is simply this: Rapakkhandha or, properly


this is, to wit, the corporeal organism together with consciousness." Now we may, without further ado, fix an essential quality pertaining to all the five groups wherein personality consists. The Buddha lays decisive stress upon this quality, he even dissolves personality into the five groups only for its sake. If we survey our whole series of deductions once more, the following total view presents itself.

The material substratum of the personality is the corporeal organism, or the six-sense-machine as we say. This machine fitted out with the organs of the senses and besides that, only with the necessary contrivances for its further maintenance and continuous supplying with fuel like any other machine, in the maternal womb-we shall see later by what-is built up out of parts of the outer world, these being at the same time assimilated by the maternal organism, or changed from dead into vital matter and thus organized, and further, kept working through an unbroken supply of food. As long speaking, nama-rupakkbandha comprises the body endowed with vitality, especially with the faculty of producing the so-called mental processes. But vedanākkbandha, saññakkbandha and sankhārakkhandba are the groups of those mental processes themselves, comprised under the term nāmakkhandha, because they are based upon nama as the respective faculty or quality of the material body as of a living entity.

The group of consciousness, viññāṇakkhandha, does not belong even in this sense to the namakkhandha, as, following the expositions given above in the text, consciousness is a separate element accessory to nāma. Therefore it is also said in the passage given afterwards: "Nāma-rūpa together with consciousness."

* Here the following passage of the Digha Nik. XXIII may be brought to notice: ".... If there, O Kassapa, the iron ball is combined with heat, combined with air, blazing, flaming and flaring, then it is lighter, more flexible and pliable. But if the iron ball is no more combined with heat and air, but has cooled down and become extinguished, then it has become heavier, more stiff and rigid. Just so, warrior king, is this body, if combined with vitality, with warmth, with consciousness, lighter, more flexible and pliable; but if this body is no longer combined with vitality and warmth and consciousness, then it has become heavy, more stiff and rigid.”

So here instead of “Nama-rupa together with consciousness" it is said: "this body combined with vitality, with warmth, with consciousness," from which it results again obviously that nama is the same as "combined with vitality, with warmth." Besides this, the relation of vitality to the material organism is defined also in this passage in exactly the same manner as the relation of magnetism to iron, the body endowed with vitality being compared to a heated iron ball.

as this machine is in order and goes well, it also fulfils its purpose of making possible the element of consciousness and thereby, of sensation and perception and, later on, the activities of the mind. If it is not able to work any more, then consciousness too is at an end, and thereby also sensation and perception and naturally also new activities of mind. and especially, new willing, just because they are mere products of the six-sense-machine and of consciousness. Only a new-built six-sense-machine may again bring forth these phenomena. Also sensation, perception and the activities of the mind are therefore nothing persistent, as little as the element of consciousness, but they are only the respective results of the six-sense-machine in conjunction with the element of consciousness and ultimately conditioned by the former. Since, as we have seen, this six-sense-machine itself, that is, the corporeal organism, is again a product of the four chief elements, the five groups constituting personality are thereby causally conditioned: "And thus has the Blessed One spoken: 'Whoso perceives the Arising of things through cause, the same perceives the truth. Whoso perceives the truth, the same perceives the Arising of things through cause.' In dependence upon cause, verily, have these five adherence-groups arisen."72

Now we also understand something further. Because our body endowed with organs of sense is the apparatus by means of which we come into connection with the world, the body, by coming into action, generating the element of consciousness and only thereby sensation and perception of the world, the beginning as well as the end of the world is conditioned by it. If the body is dissolved by death, the entire world vanishes for us. And if there should be, as the Buddha promises, a definitive overcoming of the world, then we may say now already that it will be possible only through this, that there exists a way to the final, extinguishing

of every corporeal organism- remember here that the Buddba teaches incessant rebirth-and thereby of consciousness, thereby of personality, thereby at last of the world itself:

"Once the Blessed One was staying in the Jeta grove near Sāvatthī, in the monastery of Anathapindika. And Rohitassa, a heavenly spirit, radiant in beauty, as night fell, lit up the whole garden, and betook himself to the Blessed One. Arriving thither, he respectfully saluted the Blessed One and stood beside him. And standing beside him, Rohitassa, the heavenly spirit, spoke thus to the Blessed One:

'May it be possible, O Lord, through going to know, to see or to reach the end of the world, where neither birth is, nor growing old nor dying, neither originating nor perishing?

'It is impossible, O friend, thus I say, through going to know, to see or to reach the end of the world, where neither birth is, nor growing old nor dying, neither originating nor perishing.'

'Wonderful it is, O Lord, astonishing it is, O Lord, how the Blessed One tells me thus correctly: "It is impossible, O friend, thus I say, through going to know, to see or to reach the end of the world, where neither birth is, nor growing old nor dying, neither originating nor perishing." Once, in a former birth, O Lord, I was a hermit, called Rohitassa, the son of Bhoja, and by dominating magic I was able to walk through the air. Such, O Lord, was my speed, that I, during the time an archer, strong, well trained, skilled and expert, takes to shoot with a light arrow, without using his strength, across the shadow of a palm-tree, could make a stride as far as the Eastern Sea is away from the Western Sea. In possession of such speed, capable of making such strides, O Lord, the by going, the end of the world. drinking, without chewing or

wish arose in me to reach, And without eating and tasting, without voiding

excrement or urine, without being hindered by sleep or weariness, I spent and lived a hundred years. And having gone through a full hundred years, I died on the way, without having reached the end of the world. Wonderful it is, O Lord, astonishing it is, O Lord, how the Blessed One tells me thus correctly: 'It is impossible, O friend, thus I say, by going to know, to see or to reach the end of the world, where neither birth is, nor growing old nor dying, neither originating nor perishing.'

'Certainly it is impossible, O friend, thus I say, by going to know, to see or to reach the end of the world, where neither birth is, nor growing old nor dying, neither originating nor perishing. But neither is it possible, O friend, thus I say, to make an end of suffering without having reached the end of the world. But this I declare, O friend: Within this body, six feet high, endowed with perception and cognition, is contained the world, the origin of the world, and the end of the world, and the path leading towards the end of the world'."73 Or, as we have heard above, but only now are able to understand completely: within nāma-rūpa, to wit, our corporeal organism, together with consciousness, everything is contained "that lies in the domain of concepts, in the domain of explanation, in the domain of manifestation, in the domain of knowledge."

If thus the corporeal organism together with consciousness offers us the possibility of coming into contact with the world, this world becomes real for us in the same measure that the six-sense-machine is set in action and thereby all the five groups appear, thus, in the measure that we develop into personality: Within and with this personality we experience what we call the world or the All. And because this living and moving and having our being in the All seems to us the highest ideal, therefore we know no higher bliss than our personality, wherein each

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