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The subject will probably be deemed against those of the grand conful. Moreworthy of the attention which I have re- over, they can scarcely be thought fimple quested, when it be considered how highly enough to imagine that prayers tictated injurious the abovementioned notion, (of from a political cabinet will have any the propriety of using at first the deepest effect in influencing the divine decrees ; glasies which the eye will admit,) must fo that their sentiments of gratitude tobe, if general experience provę (and which wards their English friends, need not reI strongly suspect it will) that facts di- ceive any violent shock from a consci. rectly contrary to those upon which this oulness of the mischief they are doing us. advice is given, take place.

Heartily do I wish that the French had Yours, &c. no stronger arms to assail us with; for Myops. though I am not sure that our volunteers

will be able to out-fight them, I have no To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. doubt that we have plenty of those who SIR,

can out-pray them. Your's, &c. OBSERVE in a late number of your


Magazine, that a writer who, under the fignature of Edipus, has given a disgraceful To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. anecdote of Talleyrand, has also made a fideftroke at those of the



cussion on the character of the late country to resume their functions in their Mr. Robinson of Cambridge, I fall only

He calls them “ vipers, the fore- observe, that his Lectures on Nunconmost to sting, and emulous of each other formity, which I read many years ago, in their prayers for the Corsican despot's struck me as a most violent party persuccess in invading and desolating Eng- formance, full of the credulity' and maJand!” I presume that the charge against lignity which never fail to accompany them of peculiar forwardness in this busi- bigotry, whatever be the side it takes. ness is not to be rigorously understood, and Among other calumnies, the credit given that no more is meant than that they act to the horrid charge against James I. of in correspondence with the rest of their having caused his eldest son, Prince Hen. order. Now, not to urge that these priests ry, to be poisoned, particularly shocked may really (with the mass of their country- me, as I happened to be furnished with men) suppose that England is the aggreffor absolute proof that it was totally groundin this war, and may regard their duty to less. In the medical works of Sir Theotheir native land as paramount to grati- dore Mayerne is a minute narration of tude for another--not to infilt upon this the disease of this prince, which was coufideration, I would alk, how can a putrid fever of three weeks duation ; clergy established and paid by a state, act and the treatment of which exhibits the otherwise in public concerns, than as the whole range of practice in such cases, as it ftate bids thein ? Do they not everywhere then existed. The names of the other bless aud curse, preach and pray, accords medical attendants are mentioned, the ing to the injunctions of that power which whole train of symptoms, and the apmaintains them for its own support, just pearances on dissection, are accurately as it does every other species of standing stated, and not a shadow of doubt can force ? Have we any instances, now-a

remain on the authenticity of the relation. days, of a priest or a prophei who, like

I mult, however, do Mr. Robinson and honest Balaam, hesitates to devote a pub. his brother Nonconformists the justice to lic foe to deltruction till he has received a say, that they were not the only believers special commission for it? If the French and propagators of this caluniny against emigrant clergy were justifiable in return. King James. In Dodfley's Collection of ing to their posts when the consular repub- Poems, (vol. iji.) is “ An Epistle from lic had been universally acknowledged as

Florence, by the Honourable [Horace one of the regular governments in Europe, Walpole,)” which contains a sketch, by (which none, I believe, but a few bigots no means flattering, of the Englit kings. have disputed), it became a part of their That of James I. is highly faiirical, and duty to act with respect to the new go. ends with this linevernment as they would have done to the « Poison’d one son, and t'other sent to Spain." old. They were formerly the adyocates But Mr. Cole might say of this writer for passive obedience in subjects, and they “ The dog was a whig;” and, doubtless, must be so now they formerly denounced whig-lies may well be matched againli judgments against all the enemies of the tory and jacobite lies. Your's, &c. grand monarque, and they must now do lo

N, N.


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To tbe Editor of the Monthly Magazine. one of those demonstrative instances of the SIR,

omnipotency of mental energy, who By

mit, for insertion in your respectable I occasionally stimulate the perseverance Mifcellary, a communication with which of my pupils—that where determined I have recently been favoured by that effort and enthusiastic diligence are not well known scientific phenomenon, Mr. wanting, the blemishes of physical nature Johu Gough. The ingenious essay "On effectively disappear, “the blind themthe Causes of the Variety of the Human selves are penetrating; and the mute have Voices," communicated, some years ago, tongues of fire!" by that gentleman, to the Literary and The communication originated (as will Philosophical Society of Manchester, is of be apparent from the context) from the course well known to a numerous class circumstance of Mr. Gough's attendance of fcientific readers, to whom the Me- upon my Lecture, " On the Education moirs of that once active and flourishing and Management of the Organs of Voice," institution heretofore presented a fund during the fort course of Lectures of rational amusement. The theory of (eight in number) that I have recently unisons and secondary vibrations by which delivered in the town of Kendal “On the that effay fo ingenioully accounts, first Science and Practice of Elocution ;” and for the different tones of different inftru. the suggestion of the writer is perfectly ments of the same nominal and appa- correct, that his remarks will tend to the rent fructure, and thence, by inference improvement of my theory. With that and analogy, for the diversities of tone theory, however, those remarks are in fo remarkable in different human voices, perfect consonance. In a previous Lecmust have carried its conviction to the mind iure “On the Structure, Physiology, and of every scientific musician and every Offices of the Organs of Speech," which reflecting observer of those characteristic Mr. Gough (the remoteness of whole varieties which that theory professes to residence interfered with the regularity explain. With the speculative theorems of his attendance) did not happen to of that essay the practical observations hear, the secondary vibxations of the of the ensuing letter are naturally and human voice through the whole of the intimately connected : and the judicious cavities and fibres of the head were observations it contains, receive additi- expressly traced ; the repeative characonal interest from the source whence teristic tones were specified, and demons they are derived. Cut off, in his strated, in their connexion with the carliest infancy, from all intercourse respective orgars of promulgation and with the world of knowledge and obser- modification, the roof, tie noftrils, the vation, through the 'customary inlet, the maxillaries, &c.) and the practical aporgan of sight, Mr. Gough has been peal to the collateral evidence of the induced by the co-operation of this pri- lense of touch, by the application of vation with his ardent and insatiable the finger to the vibrating fibres of the thirit of science, to cultivate with ex- head, during the specific intonations, was treme diligence the supplementary faculties dictated for the confirmation of the fact. of hearing and of touch. The acute Beyond this essential member of the perfection to which the latter of thele, animal frame, I confess, however, that has been improved and exparded, has my researches into the ramifications of been fufficiently demonstrated by the ex- the organ of voice had never been exlent to which he has carried his practical tended. The observations of my curie. researches into the minute science of fpondent expand the theory through a botany; and the exquisiteness of his per- ftill wider circuit; and the extension is ceptions in the other kind—the prompti. demonftratively just. The suggeltion of tude with which he discovers the stature the expansion of sonorous power, and of the merelt franger by the firit re- consequent diffusion of found, through a soundings of his voice (of which I have wider circuit, in proportion to the nummyself been witness), and the facility with ber (not loudness) of the vibrating uniwhich he recognizes the presence, and fons, and of the application of the powers di criminates the identity of his acquaint- of volition to the bringing of the respecance, by merely listening to their respec- tive vibratory fibres into the state of tive breathings, equally, illustrate the unison required, (which may be exunprecedented degree of improvement to tended to every description of enunciawhich he has expanded his hearing facul. tive effort, as well as to the theatrical ties: so that Mr. Gough is, in reality, whispering to which it is here applied) MONTHLY MAG. No. 111,



will, also, be found of inost especial im- vibrations is produced ; and these impulse: portance to all persons whose professional pervade the superior moiety of the speaker or public duties call for the emphatic with a power proportionate to their primitive exertions of the elocutionary powess. To force. The upper part of his body is ther such persons, therefore, I have no doubt converted into an automatic clarionet; thi that the discovery will be highly accep- in part from the muscular strength of th

effect of wbich, in respect of distance, arife table; and I proceed accordingly, to the larynx ; and is derived partly from th quotation of Mr. Gough's letter.

magnitude of that portion of his body, whic! SIR,

vibrates in company with the primary or “ THE spirit of inquiry, and the valuable gans of voice.

observations which enriched your I have now compleated the outline< lecture on the education of the voice, en- my theory, by enumerating the physici courage me to offer a few facts and reflec- principles which act in conjunction, fo as tions to

your confideration. The naked enlarge the power of the voice. Should th truth is simply this, I am vain enough to talk of comparing my opinion with fae imagine myself able to improve your theory appear worth pursuing, you may easily coi of the power of the human voice; and as firm or refute the theory by making th the improvement demonstrates the propriety comparison : for my part, I shall take noti of the rules which you have given to facili- but of one incident of the kind; and this i tate the attainment of this accomplishment, the circumstance of powerful whisperin I have ventured to trouble you with the which you mention in your lecture on ti following thoughts on the subject.

education of the voice. Actors differ fro The egress of the voice is generally sup- other men, as they use their endeavours o posed to be confined to the aperture of the casionally to make their whispers intelligit lips; but any person may convince himself, to the multitude. This effort is exacted that this notion is ill founded, by a simple the nature of the profession, which requis experiment. Let him place the tip of his certain secrets of the drama to be comm finger upon his breatt or the side of his fore- nicated to the audience apparently in i head when he is speaking, and the sense of language of secrecy. The person who will touch will inform him immediately, that to acquire this difficult attainment, wi the vibrations of the larynx are not restricted probably, find the accomplishment of to the compass of the windpipe, but extend enterprize facilitated by making a pro to the more distant parts of the head and use of the following facts. First, if a bi chest, which vibrate in conjunction with is forced to vibrate in confequence of the primary organs of voice. In fact the connexion with another already in a st upper moiety of the speaker’s body becomes of vibration, the greatest effect will be p an extensive field of sound, resembling a duced when the two bodies are in unif drum, every member of which vibrates as Second, the vibratory faculty of the ch oft as a stroke is imparted to the parchment may be altered by varying thc preffure covering by the drumstick. Experience the muscles belonging to this part of thews, that a fixed quantity of percussive human frame ; in the same manner that force produces sounds, poftilling greater or vibratory faculty changed in a drum less powers, according as this force is per- altering the action of the braces. It folk mitted to act upon greater or less portions from these properties of transmitted fou of vibrating surface. The notes of a cla. that the man will whisper with the grea rionet can fill a circle a mile in diameter; effect who can put his head and chest i but if the reed, or mouth-piece, be made unison with his larynx ; when it is i to round, when disunited from the tube, state of extreme relaxation. it cannot be heard at the distance of one You very juftly observe, that the scie hundred yards; though this instrument is yet in its infancy, which teaches the evidently produces vibrations in the latter of giving power to the voice by a judic instances, which are equal to those it pro- management of the vocal organs, Sh duced in the former.

the preceding attempt advance the infant Let us now substitute the larynx in place step towards maturity, the design of the of the mouth-piece; also, let the chest, fent letter will be answered.” cogether with the head, represent the trunk Middlebaru,

I am, &c. of the clarionet ; and this easy transition, Nov. 3, 1803,

JOHN Gou from art to nature, explains the method

To the observations of Mr. Goug whereby the power of the voice is increased: the fonorous vibrations of the fibre for it discovers the physical causes upon the chelt, I have only to add, that, which the secret depends. This method consists chiefly in contracting the upper ex

the receipt of his letier, I have tried tremity of the windpipe, tu as to make the hypothesis, by the test which he muscles of the larynx reft strongly upon gests, both in private experiment the breath, during its escape from the lungs. during my public exertions; that, it In this manner a quick succellion of powerful at least, those experiments have appe


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fufficiently satisfactory; and that the sulted some of the most learned men in fact hus discovered appears to me an this country, before it was put to press, important addition to the means of prac. who gave it as a decided opinion, that tical inprovement in elocutionary science. no general rules can be laid down for the If I may be permitted to judge of the pronunciation of certain combinations fuccess of my own experiments, the appli- of letters in the names of places. Thus cation of the suggeition has added at least the fb, fch, ch, to which Mr. B. refers, one more to the manageable varieties and will in proper names have different powmodifications of vocal intonation. Indeed, ers according to the language of the counif the whole of my theory and that of try, to which the place belongs : in Mr. Gough be not fallacious, this Rochelle, for instance, the name of a town must eventually be the case : as nothing in France, the ch, must be pronounced as is more clear than that the improvement fi, and accerdingly in the Vocabulary of any faculty must neceffarily depend, alluded to, it is put “ Ro-chèlle (proin a very confiderabie degree, upon the nounced Ro-lelle).” To take another accurate comprehension of the inftrumen. initance or two from the same work, tality by which the funtions of that Brac-cià-no, and Ro-mag-na, provinces faculty are carried on; and as the human of Italy; if the ci, and the a, in the voice is not so ttrictly speaking a single former, and the g, in the latter were, or instrument, as a concert of many inttru- could be, reduced, 10 English pronounciaments, whose respective powers and cha- tion, or in other words, if a general rule racteristic tones are exceedingly different could be given, there would be no diffifrom each other; and as we have, evi. culty: but as that is impossible, those den:ly, the power, by the actions, com. words in Goldsmith's Grammar stand as pressions, tenfions, positions, and relaxa. follows, “ Brac-ci-à-no (pronounced Brations of the relpective voluntary mucles “ chi-ar-no): Ro-mag na (pronounced connected with each and all of these, to Ro-m'a-na):"",

Other instances direct (partially or intirely) the influen- less striking might be selected from the tial or secondary vibrations, that respond fame little work, but these are fufficient to the original impulses of the larynx, to show Mr. Barrett, that he is seeking through one, or other, or several, of all what is not possible to be found. If he of these, as occasion, or inclination re- refer to Goldsmith's Grammar, he will quire, he who best knows the respective also see that care has been taken not only portions of this automatic band from to divide the several words into syllables, which the different intonati ns are to be but also, to lay the accent on the proper elicited, will, necesarily, be beit enabled syllable, affording at once a sort of ilanda to command the correspondent tones, and to the scholar, and, in doubtful calts, which the several pallions, lentiments, to the preceptor also. and combinations of language may le. Mr. B. says that, as“

many respectable quire; and every discovery which extends persons associate all their geographical the just theory of vocal vibrations, ex- knowledge, with names which they have tends, accordingly, the practicable powers few oppreunities of hearing pronounced, of elocutionary exprellion.

and to subject themlelves to unmerited I am, Sir, your's, &c. ridicule, it cannot be doubted that allist

J. THELWALL. ance in this respect, if afforded with toLancaster, 15 Nov. 1803.

lerable accuracy, would be found particu

Jarly useful." To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. Of this aliistance, I have, Sir, Mown, SIR,

the public is already in poffeffion. And I Was in some degree surprised at the beg le:ve to remark that the sole cause

enquiries made by Mr. Barrett, in of ihe other complaint, viz. thai geograp: 400 of your last number, because phical knowledge is almost always conwhat he is projeEting as a novelty, has fined to names, has originated from the been aiready before che public fince the llovenly way in which introductory works month of April last.

of Geography are usually written. In At the end of “ An Ealy Grammar some we meet with a mere collection of of Geography by the Rev. J. Goldfinith,” names, descriptions of boundaries, and will be found a vocabulary of proper other technical terms, which it is almost names of places divided and accented, in impossible for a pupil to commit to me: the way in which they are usually pro- mory, and, if learnt, convey to the mind nounced. The author of that work con- Do practical information : in others, there


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is not a single map, which must ever be manorum, fe&t. 23.) The original words an effectual bar to the attainment of are, “ Potui humor ex hordeo aut frugeographical knowledge. The pupil mento, in quamdam fimilitudinem vini may learn from his book that Portugal is corruptus. Proximi ripæ & vinum mirbounded in part by Spain, and in part cantur." by the Atlantic, or that the Pyrenees are The Anglo Saxons, as well as all the the boundaries between France and Spain; northern tribes, were addicted to hard but if he have no map before him to drinking, which accounts for the nuinerwhich he may refer, for the relative posi- ous drinking-horns with which the bantion which one country bears to another, quets, as they are exhibited in our earlieft the memory will be wearitd, but the un- inanuscripts, seem much better provided derstanding cannot be informed.

than with plates and dishes. Among the How far these and other defects with ancient Germans, says Tacitus, it was which a multitude of what are called no disgrace to be fitting day and night, “ Introductions or Guides to Geography," carousing and drinking. And such great are chargeable, have been remedied in drinkers were the Danes who were in the little book to which I have referred, England in the time of Edgar, that that the public will judge for themselves. Mr. monarch not only put down a great namBarrett will, in some respects, at least, ber of the alehouses which then existed, find in it, what he conceived were still but fuffered one only to be open in each among the desiderata in this pleasing and of the villages and small towns, and orhighly useful science.

dained that pegs or studs should be faltDec. 13. 1803.

I am, &c. ened in the drinking cups and horns at A CONSTAN'T READER. stated distances, and that whosoever should

drink beyond his mark should be obnoxi. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

ous to a severe punishment,

The brewing veffel of those times was SIR,

called alfath, from al, ale, and fæt a vat : IN N compliance with the wish expressed and if we may credit the Laws of Athel.

by Eboracensis, I have transcribed Atan (ap. Bromp. C. 19.) was made infrom iny common-place book a few me. differently of iron, brass, or lead. The moranda in regard to Beer.

word vat, applied by our brewers at the Bere is an Anglo-Saxon word for present day, is, I believe, the only instance barley, so that we have not far to go for where the Saxon word is still used. its etymology. Indeed they who are

The Laws of Ina king of Wessex, in beft skilled in the analogy that exists the year 728, mention both ale and aleamong the languages in the North of houses : though the first assize was not fixed Europe, find a singular coincidence in the till the famous statute of the fifty first of word before us, which is used with little Henry the 3d. variation for the same article, among

Although the brewers of London were them all. The Germans fay bier; the not incorporated as a company till the Danes bior,

time of Henry the 5th, 1438, they occur Tacitus, who knew the forefathers of as a fraternity among the Rolls of Parliaour ancestors among their native woods, ment considerably sooner, and are called has left us a curious picture of their man- the Bere-brewers. He says their food was of the

Froin the patents in the Record Office simpleft kind; such as wild apples, the at the Tower, it appears that in the firit fler of an animal recently killed, or coa

year of Edward the 4th the supervisorgulated milk. Without skill in cookery, ship of the bere-brewers throughout the and without seasoning, to stimulate the kingdom was bestowed by the king on palate, they are to fatisfy nature. But, John Devenishe and others; and that he tells us, chey did not drink with the their fee was a half-penny of filver upon fole view of quenching thirst ; their love

In the sth of the same of liquor was indulged to particular ex. king this office was granted, for their lives, cess: they were careless indeed as to its

to Richard Bele, Robert Oldum and John quantity, but not its quality, The Ro. Gyles. And in his 11th year we have man author says “ Their beverage is a parent appointing • John Gyles, William a liquor drawn from barley, or from wheat, Gull, and John Nicholl, scrutatores et and, like the juice of the Grape, fer- supervisores de lez Beerebrewers London.' mented to a spirit: The fettlers on the That the expoıt trade existed soon after, banks of the Rhine provide themselves we have full proof, fince in 1492, Henry with wine,” (Tacitus de Moribus Ger. the 7th granted license to a Fleming to


every barrel.

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